Age Effects

  • Wout van Bommel


Changes that occur with age in the optics and retina of the eye, and in the neurological pathways connecting the eye with different locations in the brain, have adverse effects on the vision and the circadian system. The optical changes in the eye with age concern loss of eye-lens transparency because of yellowing of the lens, structural changes in the cornea and eyeball (clouding), and a smaller pupil size due to loss of elasticity. They all have negative consequences for the amount of light reaching the retina. The effect of the yellowing of the eye lens also leads to loss of blue light which is especially a problem for both acute and circadian non-visual effects of light. Structural changes of the cornea, lens, vitreous body, retina and blind spot increase scattering of light by these structures towards the fovea and consequently increase glare in the elderly. With increasing age, regeneration of the rod pigment takes more time, and consequently dark adaptation is slower. Causes, consequences and (lighting) remedies for all the deteriorations in visual and non-visual effects are discussed in this chapter.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wout van Bommel
    • 1
  1. 1.Van Bommel Lighting ConsultantNuenenThe Netherlands

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