• Wout van Bommel


Solid-state light sources offer far more possibilities to engineer lamp spectra to suit different colour quality requirements than gas discharge lamps did. Accurate lamp colour specification based on perceived colour has therefore received renewed attention. This concerns in the first place the specification of different types of white light sources. Coloured LEDs are more and more used in interior spaces so that also an accurate specification of coloured light sources is needed. For the specification of chromaticity coordinates of light sources, the CIE x–y chromaticity diagram (CIE colour triangle) is the basis. It is based on the standard CIE 1931 colorimetric observer, defined with colour-matching functions. Correlated colour temperatures of light sources, as a characterisation of the tint of whiteness, are easily obtained from the x–y chromaticity coordinates. MacAdam ellipses, in a more uniform u′–v′ chromaticity diagram, are the basis for the binning process in the LED manufacturing process.

A wealth of new research on colour science is available as a basis to replace some colour concepts that have been developed between the 1930s and 1960s. New uniform three-dimensional colour spaces have been introduced. The CIECAM02-UCS colour space is proposed as a basis for a novel two-metric colour-rendering system with a fidelity index R f and a gamut index R g . Here, R g is a measure of colour saturation.

Vector graphics visualise the colour properties of light sources. They represent an indispensable new tool for the lighting designer in the LED era.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wout van Bommel
    • 1
  1. 1.Van Bommel Lighting ConsultantNuenenThe Netherlands

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