Emerging Enterprises and Sustainability in the Food System: Food Entrepreneurs in South Africa
A sustainable food system implies the creation of new production processes for food, alternative producers and new enterprises that protect ecological integrity and create social benefits, as is economically productive. This chapter analyses sustainability in three South African ‘township’ enterprises that emerged out of a multi-stakeholder engagement project. Three emerging enterprises illustrate that the integration of society, ecology and economy is possible if we conceptualise businesses as a complex of systems, networks and actors. The chapter illustrates how entrepreneurs combine enterprises, systems and multi-stakeholder engagement processes in enterprise development.
- Braungart, M., & McDonough, W. (2008). Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things. London: Vintage.Google Scholar
- Bula, H. O. (2012). Evolution and Theories of Entrepreneurship: A Critical Review on the Kenyan Perspective. International Journal of Business and Commerce, 1(11), 81–96.Google Scholar
- Castells, M. (2010). The Information Age: Economy, Society, Culture: The Rise of the Network Society. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Chronicle, The 2018 ‘South Africa’s Land Debate Is Clouded by Misrepresentation and Lack of Data’ (Ben Cousins). (2018, March 12). Retrieved March 12, 2018, from http://www.chronicle.co.zw/south-africas-land-debate-is-clouded-by-misrepresentation-and-lack-of-data/.
- DoA (Department of Agriculture, South Africa). (2008). National Agricultural Research and Development Strategy. Pretoria: DOA.Google Scholar
- DTI (Department of Trade and Industry, South Africa). (2007). Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Act (53/2003) Codes of Good Practice on Black Economic Empowerment. SA Government Gazette 29617, General Notice 112.Google Scholar
- Economist, The. (2015, February 28). I Had a Farm in Africa: South Africa Takes a Populist Turn on Land Reform. Retrieved July 1, 2016, from http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21645232-south-africa-takes-populist-turn-land-reform-i-had-farm-africa.
- Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Friedman, H., & McMichael, P. (1989). Agriculture and the State System: The Rise and Decline of National Agricultures, 1870 to the Present. Sociologia Ruralis, 29(2), 93–117.Google Scholar
- Giddens, A. (1984). The Constitution of Society. London: Polity.Google Scholar
- Greenberg, S. (2010). Contesting the Food System in South Africa: Issues and Opportunities. Research Report No. 42. Bellville: Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies.Google Scholar
- Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Laws, S., Harper, C., Jones, N., & Marcus, R. (2013). Research for Development: A Practical Guide. New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
- Long, N., & Long, A. (1992). Battlefields of Knowledge: The Interlocking of Theory and Practice in Social Research and Development. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Malan, N. (2015b). Design and Social Innovation for Systemic Change: Creating Social Capital for a Farmers’ Market. In L. Collina, L. Galluzzo, & A. Meroni (Eds.), The Virtuous Circle: Design Culture and Experimentation. Milano, Italy: McGraw-Hill Education.Google Scholar
- McLachlan, M., & Thorne, J. (2009). Seeding Change: A Proposal for Renewal in the South African Food System. Development Planning Division Working Paper Series No. 16. Midrand: DBSA.Google Scholar
- Mikkelsen, B. (2005). Methods for Development Work and Research: A Guide for Practitioners (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
- MRC and HSRC (Medical Research Council and Human Sciences Research Council). (2013). The South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey SANHANES-1. Cape Town: HSRC Press.Google Scholar
- Nkosi, S., Gumbo, T., Kroll, F., & Rudolph, M. (2014). Community Gardens as a Form of Urban Household Food and Income Supplements in African Cities: Experiences in Hammanskraal, Pretoria. AISA Policy Brief No. 112. Tswane: AISA.Google Scholar
- Polanyi, K. (2001 ). The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
- Pretty, J. (2012). Agriculture and Food Systems: Our Current Challenge. In C. Rosin, P. Stock, & H. Campbell (Eds.), Food Systems Failure: The Global Food Crisis and the Future of Agriculture (pp. 17–29). Earthscan: Oxon.Google Scholar
- Regeer, B., Mager, S., & van Oorsouw, Y. (2011). License to Grow: Innovating Sustainable Development by Connecting Values. Amsterdam: VU University Press.Google Scholar
- Rudolph, M., Kroll, F., Ruysenaar, S., & Dlamini, T. (2012). The State of Food Insecurity in Johannesburg. Urban Food Security Series No. 12. Kingston and Cape Town: Queen’s University and AFSUN.Google Scholar
- Sumner, J., McMurtry, J. J., & Renglich, H. (2014). Leveraging the Local: Cooperative Food Systems and the Local Organic Food Co-ops Network in Ontario, Canada. Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development, 4(3), 47–60. https://doi.org/10.5304/jafscd.2014.043.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thom, A., & Conradie, B. (2012). Urban Agriculture, Social Enterprise and Box Schemes in Cape Town. CSSR Working Paper No. 310. Cape Town: Centre for Social Science Research, University of Cape Town.Google Scholar
- UNEP. (2016). Food Systems and Natural Resources. A Report of the Working Group on Food Systems of the International Resource Panel. Nairobi: UNEP.Google Scholar
- World Bank. (2016). GINI Index (World Bank Estimate). Retrieved October 20, 2016, from http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.GINI?locations=ZA.
- World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). Our Common Future. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
- World Economic Forum. (2014). Towards the Circular Economy: Accelerating the Scale-Up Across Global Supply Chains. Davos: WEF.Google Scholar