Systems-Level Thinking for Artificial Intelligent Systems

  • James A. Crowder
  • John Carbone
  • Shelli Friess


Systems thinking and its perspective have become more and more prevalent in engineering, business, and management. Systems thinking enables systems, people, and/or organizations to study and understand interaction between individuals (or subsystems), departments (or system elements), and/or business units (or legacy systems) within an organization or overall system-of-systems design (Miller, Living systems, McGraw-Hill, London, 1978). The elements considered in systems thinking, then, predict and produce behaviors that are fed back into the overall systems thinking process to produce necessary changes within the organization or system to produce the desired behavior or results. In short, systems thinking (Ashby, An introduction to cybernetics, Chapman & Hall, London, 1956) seeks to understand how different parts of the system influence one another and influence the entire system. Unlike critical thinking, systems thinking requires many skills to create a holistic view of an entire system and its current and predicted behavior (Ashby, Design for a brain: The origin of adaptive behavior, Chapman & Hall, London, 1960).


Systems thinking Artificial intelligence Autonomous systems Reinforcement theory 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • James A. Crowder
    • 1
  • John Carbone
    • 2
  • Shelli Friess
    • 3
  1. 1.Colorado Engineering Inc.Colorado SpringsUSA
  2. 2.ForcepointAustinUSA
  3. 3.Walden UniversityMinneapolisUSA

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