Cellular and Molecular Responses to Gravitational Force-Triggered Stress in Cells of the Immune System

  • Oliver UllrichEmail author
  • Cora S. Thiel


Sensitivity of the human immune system to microgravity has been supposed since the first Apollo missions and was demonstrated during several space missions in the past. In vitro experiments demonstrated that cells of the immune system are exceptionally sensitive to microgravity. Therefore, serious concerns arose whether spaceflight-associated immune system weakening ultimately precludes the expansion of human presence beyond Earth’s orbit. In human cells, gravitational forces may be sensed by an individual cell in the context of altered extracellular matrix mechanics, cell shape, cytoskeletal organization, or internal prestress in the cell–tissue matrix. The development of cellular mechanosensitivity and signal transduction was probably an evolutionary requirement to enable our cells to sense their individual microenvironment. Therefore it is possible that the same mechanisms, which enable human cells to sense and to cope with mechanical stress, are potentially dangerous in microgravity. This chapter reviews the most recent developments in investigation to elucidate the influence of microgravity on immune cell signaling and functions and hereby bridges the phenotypic changes to transcriptome and epigenetic regulators.



We gratefully acknowledge the support by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Space Agency (grant no. 50WB0613, no. 50WB0912, no. 50WB1219, no. 50WB1519), and ESA (ESTEC Contract nr 20562/07/NL/VJ ESA-CORA-GBF-2005-005). We also gratefully thank our collaboration partners DLR, ESA, NASA, Spaceflorida, Airbus Defense and Space, Novespace, the Swiss Air Force, the Swiss International Airlines, and the Deutsche Lufthansa.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of Machine Design, Engineering Design and Product Development, Institute of Mechanical EngineeringOtto-von-Guericke-University MagdeburgMagdeburgGermany
  3. 3.UZH Space HubUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  4. 4.Space Life Sciences Laboratory (SLSL)Kennedy Space CenterExploration ParkUSA

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