Adaptive Immunity and Spaceflight

  • Brian CrucianEmail author
  • George Makedonas
  • Clarence Sams


Spaceflight causes alterations in human immunity, a finding which has been well documented immediately following spaceflight. Limited in-flight studies have also confirmed that to some degree immunity is compromised during spaceflight. A comprehensive understanding of the nature of these immune changes is lacking. This chapter reviews the current evidence regarding spaceflight effects on the function of the adaptive immune system, and speculates on potential adverse clinical outcomes. Potential causes for these alterations are discussed elsewhere in this volume (Chap.  11), as are spaceflight effects on the function of the innate immune system (Chap.  12).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian Crucian
    • 1
    Email author
  • George Makedonas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Clarence Sams
    • 1
  1. 1.NASA-Johnson Space CenterHoustonUSA
  2. 2.JES TechHoustonUSA

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