3D Mapping and Reduction in Radiation Exposure

  • Isabelle NaultEmail author


The field of cardiac electrophysiology has evolved dramatically in the last decades. Catheter ablation is now the standard of care for the treatment of several arrhythmias and the development of technology allows for more and more complex procedures to be realized.

3D mapping is used during many EP procedures for anatomic reconstruction, navigation, activation mapping (integration of the timing of recorded electrograms), and voltage mapping (integration of the amplitude of local signal). Systems used today have evolved to allow precision in localization of catheters and anatomical landmark, reliability and stability of the virtual anatomy, integration of different imaging modalities, and multiple features to facilitate mapping and ablation. This chapter mainly focuses on the reduction in fluoroscopy that can be achieved using 3D mapping systems.


Mapping systems Non-fluoro Less-fluoro Zero-fluoro Fluoroscopy reduction 3D mapping 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IUCPQQuébecCanada

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