Bioluminescence Technology to Aid Lesion Activity Assessment

  • Christopher LongbottomEmail author
  • Bruce Vernon


Calcivis Imaging System is a novel device that detects the presence of free calcium ions as an indication of active enamel demineralization. The system uses a photoprotein that interacts with free calcium ions eliciting a bioluminescence signal. Using a specialized software, the system captures the bioluminescence image. Studies have indicated a direct correlation between intensity of luminescence and calcium concentration. Ongoing studies will further elucidate the value of this system in caries activity assessment and management.


Caries Lesion activity Lesion assessment Luminescence Bioluminescence Imaging 


  1. 1.
    Fejerskov O, Kidd E. Dental caries: the disease and its clinical management. Hoboken: Wiley; 2008. p. 211.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fabregas R, Rubinstein J. On the initial propagation of dental caries. J R Soc Interface. 2014;11:20140809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Deng L, Markova SV, Vysotski ES, Liu ZJ, Lee J, Rose J, Wang BC. Crystal structure of a Ca2+-discharged photoprotein. J Biol Chem. 2004;279(32):33647–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    ImageJ Software by National Institutes of Health, USA.
  5. 5.
    Lynch RJM, Mony U, ten Cate JM. Effect of lesion characteristics and mineralizing solution type on enamel remineralization in vitro. Caries Res. 2007;41:257–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Featherstone JD, Holmen L, Thylstrup A, Fredebo L, Shariati M. Chemical and histological changes during development of artificial caries. Caries Res. 1985;19(1):1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.King’s College London Dental InstituteLondonUK
  2. 2.Calcivis Ltd.EdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations