• Michael J. Bradshaw
  • Siddharama Pawate
  • Jeffrey A. SparksEmail author


The protean manifestations of neurosarcoidosis (NS) make familiarity with its clinical, radiological, and biological spectra important for the astute clinician. A rational approach to the diagnosis and a thorough knowledge of the differential diagnosis is critical. No clinical trials in NS have been conducted to date, but treatment with glucocorticoids and steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents is appropriate. Recent advances in management of NS include the use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors for aggressive or refractory cases.


Neurosarcoidosis Sarcoidosis Cranial neuropathy Meningitis Myelitis Granuloma Tumor necrosis factor TNF inhibitors Glucocorticoids 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Bradshaw
    • 1
  • Siddharama Pawate
    • 2
  • Jeffrey A. Sparks
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyBillings ClinicBillingsUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyVanderbilt University Medical CenterNashvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and AllergyBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA

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