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Surface Antibody-Mediated Autoimmune Encephalitis

  • Amanda L. Piquet
  • Jenny J. LinnoilaEmail author
Chapter
  • 282 Downloads

Abstract

Autoimmune etiologies are increasingly recognized as a common cause of encephalitis. Many autoimmune encephalitides have been associated with neural autoantibodies, which serve as important biomarkers for these disorders. As the field of autoimmune neurology develops, new autoantibodies, characterized as either intracellular or cell surface, depending on the localization of their antigens, continue to be discovered. As opposed to the classical paraneoplastic syndromes linked with intracellular autoantibodies, neuronal surface antibody syndromes often have a good response to immunotherapy. Despite the growing recognition of autoimmune encephalitides and the increasing availability of commercial autoantibody testing, diagnoses remain challenging, given the variability of neurological presentations and complexity of diagnostic testing and subsequent interpretation. This can have significant clinical implications, as early and adequate immunotherapy ensures the best outcome.

Keywords

Autoimmune Encephalitis Paraneoplastic Antibodies Neuronal surface antibodies Immunotherapy Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of Colorado School of MedicineAuroraUSA
  2. 2.Autoimmune Neurology Unit, Department of NeurologyMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

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