CO2 and Climate Change: 250 BC Through to 1850 AD

  • Rex J. Fleming


Cosmic rays (primarily protons from exploding stars) create isotopes within the Earth’s atmosphere when the magnetic field of the Sun is not strong enough to deflect them from entering Earth’s atmosphere. These isotope values of Berylillum-10 and Carbon −14 are strong (the Sun’s magnetic field weak) – during the solar minima associated with the cold climate regimes of this period, like the important Maunder Minimum of the Little Ice Age (1645–1715).

These same two isotopes, Be-10 and C-14, are quite weak (when the Sun’s magnetic field is strong) – keeping cosmic rays from entering the atmosphere. These isotopes clearly show past warm periods, the Medieval Warming (900 AD–1300 AD) and also the Modern Warming (1850 to the present).


Carbon dioxide Climate change Solar magnetic field Cosmic rays Isotopes 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rex J. Fleming
    • 1
  1. 1.Global Aerospace, LLC (Retired)BoulderUSA

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