Why the Climate Does Change

  • Rex J. Fleming


Three reasons are shown why the Earth‘s climate does change:

(1) The strength of the Sun’s magnetic field (a function differential rotation and spin angular momentum and their effects on the solar dynamo. (2) The interaction of that magnetic field to divert or allow passage to Earth the cosmic rays from space (a weak field allows rays to strike Earth, form many more clouds and cool the Earth). (3) The additional orbital angular momentum (which adds to the Sun’s spin angular momentum) due to the motion of the Sun about the center of mass of the solar system (the SSB – the solar system barycenter) which changes due to the position of the Sun and the position of the four major planets.

There is an additional factor for the coming and going of the Ice Ages due to our solar system traveling around the Milky Way Galaxy and intercepting the spiral arms of that Galaxy.

Each of these facts are explained in detail and are due to the work of Svensmark and associates.


Carbon dioxide Climate change Solar magnetic field Cosmic rays Milky Way 


  1. 1.
    Plimer, I. (2009). Heaven and Earth –Global warming: The missing science. London: Quartet Books Limited, 503 pp.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Svensmark, H., & Calder, N. (2007). The chilling stars – A cosmic view of climate change (p. 268). Thriplow/Cambridge: Icon Books Ltd.Google Scholar
  3. 3. Web author Dr. David H. Hathaway. There are a variety of solar images made available by NASA on the internet that are included here in this chapter.
  4. 4.
    Sokol, J. (2018). A place in the sun. Science, 361, 441–445.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    The special image of Fig. 10.5 from imagery of Sun captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory on May 17–19, 2016.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lockwood, R., Stamper, R., & Wild, M. N. (1999). A doubling of the Sun’s coronal magnetic field during the past 100 years. Nature, 399, 437–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Choudhuri, A. R. (1998). The physics of fluids and plasmas: An introduction for astrophysicists. Cambridge University Press. See also internet paper march 7, 2007. An elementary introduction to solar dynamo theory.
  8. 8.
    Strugarek, A., et al. (2017). Reconciling solar and stellar magnetic cycles with nonlinear dynamo simulations. Science, 357, 185–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Usoskin, I., Solanki, S., & Kovaltsov, G. (2007). Grand minima and maxima of solar activity: New observational constraints. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 471, 301–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sharpe, G. J., 2008: Are Uranus and Neptune responsible for solar grand minima and solar cycle modulation? First in
  11. 11.
    Landscheidt, T. (2003). New little ice age instead of global warming. Energy and Environment, 14, 327–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Smith, C. (2007). Angular momentum graph.
  13. 13.
    Stuiver, M., Reimer, P. J., Bard, E., Beck, J. W., Burr, G. S., et al. (1998). INTCAL98 ra3iocarbon age calibration, 24,000#0 cal BP. Radiocarbon, 40, 1041#83.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    McCracken, K. G., Beer, J., & Steinhilber, F. (2014). Evidence for planetary forcing of the cosmic ray intensity and solar activity throughout the past 9400 years. Solar Physics, 289. Scholar
  15. 15.
    Svensmark, H., & Friis-Christensen, E. (1997). Variation of cosmic ray flux and global cloud coverage – A missing link in solar-climate relationships. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 59, 1225–1232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shaviv, N., & Veizer, J. (2003). Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate? Geological Society of America, 13, 4–10.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shaviv, N. (2005). Cosmic rays and climate. PhysicaPlus, online magazine of the Israel Physical Society.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Federrath, C., 2018: The turbulent formation of stars. Physics Today, June, 39–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ross, H. (2008). Why the universe is the way it is. Baker Books, 40 pp.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sorokhtin, O. G., Chilingar, G. V., & Khilyuk, L. F. (2007). Global warming and global cooling: Evolution of climate on Earth. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 313 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rex J. Fleming
    • 1
  1. 1.Global Aerospace, LLC (Retired)BoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations