Advertisement

Lichens Used in Traditional Medicine

  • Stuart D. Crawford
Chapter

Abstract

Lichens are used in traditional medicine by cultures across the world, particularly in temperate and arctic regions. Knowledge of these medicinal uses is available to us because of the contributions of traditional knowledge holders in these cultures.

The traditional medicinal uses of 60 lichen genera are summarized in this paper. Cultures in different regions of the world tend to emphasize different lichen genera in their traditional medicines, with Usnea being the most widely used genus. The folk taxonomy of lichens within a given culture is not synonymous with the scientific taxonomy and reflects the cultural value of those lichens and the traditional method of their identification. Even within Western science the identity and taxonomy of lichens has not remained constant throughout history.

Lichens in traditional medicine are most commonly used for treating wounds, skin disorders, respiratory and digestive issues, and obstetric and gynecological concerns. They have been used for both their secondary metabolites and their storage carbohydrates. The European uses of lichens have been exported world wide and sometimes influence the use of lichens by other cultures. These European uses started in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and arose from interpretations of Ancient Greek uses, as well as the application of the Doctrine of Signatures.

References

  1. Abdel-Malek S, Bastien JW, Mahler WF et al (1996) Drug leads from the Kallawaya herbalists of Bolivia. 1. Background, rationale, protocol and anti-HIV activity. J Ethnopharmacol 50:157–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abel (2009) Interview with Abel, a jambiyachack (Quichua healer) of Ñamarín (Saraguro, Loja, Ecuador), conducted by S. Crawford on August 2019Google Scholar
  3. Acharius E (1810) Lichenographia universalis. Apud I.F. Danckwerts, GottingaeGoogle Scholar
  4. Adam M, Elhassan GOM, Yagi S et al (2018) In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of 18 plants from the Erkowit Region, Eastern Sudan. Nat Prod Bioprospect 8:97–105PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adams F (1847) The seven books of Paulus Ægineta. The Sydenham Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Afolayan AJ, Grierson DS, Kambizi L et al (2002) In vitro antifungal activity of some South African medicinal plants. S Afr J Bot 68:72–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Agelet A, Vallès J (2003) Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the region of Pallars (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula). Part III. Medicinal uses of non-vascular plants. J Ethnopharmacol 84:229–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ahmadjian V, Nilsson S (1963) Swedish lichens. American Swedish Historical Foundation, pp 38–47Google Scholar
  9. Alcorn JB (1984) Huastec Mayan ethnobotany. University of Texas Press, AustinGoogle Scholar
  10. Allen DE, Hatfield G (2004) Medicinal plants in folk tradition: an ethnobotany of Britain and Ireland. Timber Press, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  11. Amoreux PJ (1787) Recherches et Expérences sur les Diverses Especies de Lichens, Dont on peut faire usage en Médecine et dans les Arts. In: Hoffmann GF et al (eds) Mémoires sur l’utilité des lichens dans la médecine et dans les arts. Chez Piestre et Delamollière, Lyon, pp 1–103Google Scholar
  12. Anonymous (1845) Pharmacopoea universalis. Landes Industrie Comptoir, WeimarGoogle Scholar
  13. Articus K (2004) Phylogenetic studies in Usnea (Parmeliaceae) and allied genera. Comprehensive summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology 931. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, UpsalaGoogle Scholar
  14. Aston Philander L (2011) An ethnobotany of Western Cape Rasta bush medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 138:578–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Atalay F, Halici MB, Mavi A et al (2014) Antioxidant phenolics from Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. and Usnea longissima Ach. lichen species. Turk J Chem 35(4):647–661Google Scholar
  16. Azenha G, Iturriaga T, Michelangeli FI, Rodriguez E (1998) Ethnolichenology, biochemical activity, and biochemistry of Amazonian lichen species. Cornell University Undergraduate Research Program on Biodiversity 1:8–14Google Scholar
  17. Bai L, Bao HY, Bau T (2014) Isolation and identification of a new benzofuranone derivative from Usnea longissima. Nat Prod Res 28:534–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bandoni AL, Mendiondo ME, Rondina RV, Coussio JD (1972) Survey of Argentine medicinal plants. I. Folklore and phytochemical screening. Lloydia 35:69–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bank TH II (1953) Botanical and ethnobotanical studies in the Aleutian Islands: II. Health and medical lore of the Aleuts. Pap Mich Acad Sci Arts Lett 38:415–431Google Scholar
  20. Bastien JW (1983) Pharmacopeia of Qollahuaya Andeans. J Ethnopharmacol 8:97–111PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Bauhin J, Cherler JH (1650) Historiae plantarum universalis. Tomus I [section 2]. Liber VII. Typographia Caldoriana, EbroduniGoogle Scholar
  22. Baumann BB (1960) The botanical aspects of Ancient Egyptian embalming and burial. Econ Bot 14:84–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Beaglehole E, Beaglehole P (1935) A note on Hopi sorcery. Mem Am Anthropol Assoc 44:5–10Google Scholar
  24. Bellia G, Pieroni A (2015) Isolated, but transnational: the glocal nature of Waldensian ethnobotany, Western Alps, NW Italy. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 11:37PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Berihuete-Azorín M (2013) First archaeobotanical approach to plant use among Selknam hunter-gatherers (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina). Archaeol Anthropol Sci 5:255–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Best E (1905) Maori medical lore. J Polynesian Soc 14:1–23Google Scholar
  27. Bhattarai NK (1999) Medicinal plants and the Plant Research Division of Nepal. Med Plant Conserv 5:7–8Google Scholar
  28. Biswas K (1947) The lichen flora of India. J Roy Asiatic Soc Bengal Sci 13:75–113Google Scholar
  29. Biswas K (1956) Common medicinal plants of Darjeeling and the Sikkim Himalayas. West Bengal Government Press, Alipore, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  30. Black MJ (1980) Algonquin ethnobotany: an interpretation of aboriginal adaptation in Southwestern Quebec. National Museum of Man Mercury Series 65. Ottawa, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  31. Black PL, Arnason JT, Cuerrier A (2008) Medininal plants used by the Inuit of Qikiqtaaluk (Baffin Island, Nunavut). Botany 86:157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Boas F (1921) Ethnology of the Kwakiutl. Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 35Google Scholar
  33. Boom BM (1987) Ethnobotany of the Chácobo Indians, Beni, Bolivia. New York Botanical Garden, BronxGoogle Scholar
  34. Bostock J, Riley HT (1855) The natural history of Pliny the Elder. Taylor and Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  35. Brodo IM, Hawksworth DL (1977) Alectoria and allied genera in North America. Opera Botanica 42:1–164Google Scholar
  36. Brooker SG, Cooper RC (1962) New Zealand medicinal plants. Unity Press, AuklandGoogle Scholar
  37. Brooker SG, Cambie RC, Cooper RC (1987) New Zealand medicinal plants. Heinemann, AuklandGoogle Scholar
  38. Bugni TS, Andjelic CD, Pole AR et al (2009) Biologically active components of a Papua New Guinea analgesic and anti-inflammatory lichen preparation. Fitoterapia 80:270–273PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Bussmann RW, Sharon D (2006a) Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2:47PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Bussmann RW, Sharon D (2006b) Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2:44PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Bustinza F, Caballero L (1947) Contribución al estudio de los antibióticos precedentes de líquenes. Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid 7:511–548Google Scholar
  42. Byg A, Salick J, Law W (2010) Medicinal plant knowledge among lay people in five Eastern Tibet villages. Hum Ecol 38:177–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cadogan L (1949) Sintesis de la medicina racional y mistica Mbyá-Guaraní. América Indígena 9:21–35PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Cameron J (1900) The Gaelic names of plants, 2nd edn. John MacKay, GlasgowGoogle Scholar
  45. Chanda S, Singh A (1971) A crude lichen drug (charila) from India. J Res Indian Med 6:209–215Google Scholar
  46. Chesnut VK (1902) Plants used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California. Systematic and geographic botany, and aboriginal uses of plants. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp 295–408Google Scholar
  47. Christanell A, Vogl-Lukasser B, Vogl CR, Gütler M (2010) The cultural significance of wild-gathered plant species in Kartitsch (Eastern Tyrol, Austria) and the influence of socioeconomic changes on local gathering practices. In: Santayana MP, Pieroni A, Puri RK (eds) Ethnobotany in the new Europe: people, health, and wild plant resources. Berghahn Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Clark B (1995) The quintessence tantras of Tibetan medicine. Snow Lion Publication, Ithaca, NYGoogle Scholar
  49. Clément D (1990) L’ethnobotanique montagnaise de Mingan. Collection Nordicana 53. Université Laval, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  50. Compton BD (1993) Upper North Wakashan and Southern Tsimshian ethnobotany: the knowledge and usage of plants and fungi among the Oweekeno, Hanaksiala (Kitlope and Kemano), Haisla (Kitamaat) and Kitasoo peoples of the Central and North Coasts of British Columbia. Ph.D. thesis, University of British Columbia, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  51. Correche E, Kurdelas R, Gomez Lechon MJ et al (2008) Antibacterial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of extracts and secondary metabolites obtained from shrubs and lichens of Argentine. In: Vinardell MP, Mitjans M (eds) Pharmacological applications of South America plants. Research Signpost, Kerala, pp 112–123Google Scholar
  52. Cramer GCP (1780) Dissertatio inauguralis medica de lichene islandico. Typis Kunstamannianis, ErlangaeGoogle Scholar
  53. Crawford S (2007) Ethnolichenology of Bryoria fremontii: wisdom of elders, population ecology, and nutritional chemistry. M.Sc. thesis, University of Victoria, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  54. Crawford SD (2015) Lichens used in traditional medicine. In: Ranković B (ed) Lichen secondary metabolites. Springer, Cham, pp 27–80Google Scholar
  55. Crum H (1993) A lichenologist’s view of lichen manna. Contrib Univ Mich Herb 19:293–306Google Scholar
  56. Culpeper N (1788) The English physician. Printed for P. M’Queen et al., LondonGoogle Scholar
  57. Curtin LSM (1949) By the prophet of the earth: ethnobotany of the Pima. University of Arizona Press, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  58. Curtin LSM (1965) Healing herbs of the upper Río Grande. Southwest Museum, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  59. Dampier G, Sloane H (1698) Part of a Letter from Mr. George Dampier. Philos Trans R Soc London 20:49–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Darias V, Bravo L, Barquín E et al (1986) Contribution to the ethnopharmacological study of the Canary Islands. J Ethnopharmacol 15:169–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Davis EW, Yost JA (1983) Novel hallucinogens from eastern Ecuador. Bot Mus Leafl Harv Univ 29:291–295Google Scholar
  62. de Beer JJJ, van Wyk B-E (2011) An ethnobotanical survey of the Agter–Hantam, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. S Afr J Bot 77:741–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. De Candolle MAP (1816) Essai sur les proprieties médicales des plantes, compares avec leurs forms extérieures et leur classification naturelle. Crochard, ParisGoogle Scholar
  64. De Crespigny RC, Hutchinson H (1903) The new forest: its traditions, inhabitants and customs. John Murray, LondonGoogle Scholar
  65. De Grey T (1639) The compleat horse-man, and expert ferrier. Thomas Harper, LondonGoogle Scholar
  66. de L’Obel M (1576) Plantarum, seu, Stirpium historia. Ex officina C. Plantini, AntverpiæCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. De Laguna F (1972) Under Mount Saint Elias: the history and culture of the Yakutat Tlingit, Part 1. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology 7. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  68. de Tournefort JP (1694) Elémens de botanique ou méthode pour connaitre les plantes. L’Imprimerie Royale, ParisGoogle Scholar
  69. Densmore F (1939) Nootka and Quileute Music. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 124. Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  70. Devkota S, Chaudhary RP, Werth S, Scheidegger C (2017) Indigenous knowledge and use of lichens by the lichenophilic communities of the Nepal Himalaya. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 13(15):1–10Google Scholar
  71. Diderot D, d’Alembert JLR, Mouchon P (1765) Encyclopédie. Briasson, ParisGoogle Scholar
  72. Dillenius JJ (1742) Historia muscorum. E theatro Sheldoniano, OxoniiGoogle Scholar
  73. Dorstenius T (1540) Botanicon. Egenolph, FrancofurtiGoogle Scholar
  74. Doukkali Z, Bouidida H, Srifi A et al (2015) Les plantes anxiolytiques au Maroc. Études ethnobotanique et ethno-pharmacologique. Phytothérapie 13:306–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Drummond AT (1861) On the economical uses of Sticta pulmonaria Hoffm. Ann Botan Soc Canada 1:81–84Google Scholar
  76. DuBois TA, Lang JF (2013) Johan Turi’s animal, mineral, vegetable cures and healing practices: an in-depth analysis of Sami (Saami) folk healing one hundred years ago. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 9:57PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Dutt UC (1877) The materia medica of the Hindus, compiled from Sanskrit medical works. Thacker, Spink & Co., CalcuttaGoogle Scholar
  78. Eidlitz K (1969) Food and emergency food in the circumpolar area. Studia Ethnographica Upsaliensia 32. Almqvist & Wiksells, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  79. Elmore FH (1943) Ethnobotany of the Navajo. Monographs of the School of American Research 8. University of New Mexico Press, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar
  80. Emmons GT (1991) The Tlingit Indians. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 70. University of Washington Press, Seattle.Google Scholar
  81. Epstein H (1937) Animal husbandry of the Hottentots. Onderstepoort J Vet Sci Anim Ind 9:631–666Google Scholar
  82. Esimone CO, Adikwu MU (1999) Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of Ramalina farinacea. Fitoterapia 70:428–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Esslinger TL (2018) A cumulative checklist for the lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi of the Continental United States and Canada, version 22. Opuscula Philolichenum 17:6–268Google Scholar
  84. Estomba D, Ladia A, Lozada M (2006) Medicinal wild plant knowledge and gathering patterns in a Mapuche community from North-western Patagonia. J Ethnopharmacol 103:109–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Felger RS, Moser MB (1985) People of the desert and sea: ethnobotany of the Seri Indians. University of Arizona Press, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  86. Fernández Ocaña AM (2000) Estudio etnobotánico en el Parque Natural de las Sierras de Cazorla, Segura y Las Villas. Investigación química de un grupo de especies interesantes. Ph.D. thesis, University of Jaén, SpainGoogle Scholar
  87. Ferrier J, Šačiragić L, Chen ECH et al (2014) Ways the Lukomir Highlanders of Bosnia and Herzegovina treat diabetes. In: Pieroni A, Quave CL (eds) Ethnobotany and biocultural diversities in the Balkans. Springer, New York, pp 13–27Google Scholar
  88. Ferrier J, Saciragic L, Trakić S et al (2015) An ethnobotany of the Lukomir Highlanders of Bosnia & Herzegovina. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 11:81PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Foxworthy FW (1922) Minor forest products of the Malay Peninsula. Malayan For Rec 2:1–217Google Scholar
  90. Fraser MH (2006) Ethnobotanical investigation of plants used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes by two Cree communities in Quebec: quantitative comparisons and antioxidant evaluation. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  91. Fu H, Wang L, Chen Y, Liao R (2005) A study on nutritional components of two different lichen teas from Yunnan. Nat Prod Res Dev 17:340–343Google Scholar
  92. Gabriel L, White HE (1954) Food and medicines of the Okanakanes. Report of the Okanagan Historical Society of Vernon, British Columbia 18:24–29Google Scholar
  93. Gaire BP, Subedi L (2011) Medicinal plant diversity and their pharmacological aspects of Nepal Himalayas. Pharm J 3:6–17Google Scholar
  94. Garcia GH, Campos R, de Torres RA (1990) Antiherpetic activity of some Argentine medicinal plants. Fitoterapia 61:542–546Google Scholar
  95. Garibaldi A (1999) Medicinal flora of the Alaska natives. University of Alaska Anchorage, USAGoogle Scholar
  96. Garrett JT (2003) The Cherokee herbal: native plant medicine from the four directions. Bear & Co., VermontGoogle Scholar
  97. Garth TR (1953) Atsugewi Ethnobotany. Anthropological Records [University of California] 14:129–212Google Scholar
  98. Gedner C (1756) Cui bono? In: Linnaeus C (ed) Amoenitates Academicæ. Sumtu & literis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ, pp 231–256Google Scholar
  99. Gerarde J (1597) The herball or general historie of plantes. John Norton, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Gill SJ (1983) Ethnobotany of the Makah and Ozette people, Olympic Peninsula, Washington (USA). Washington State University, PullmanGoogle Scholar
  101. Gioanetto F (1993) Aspetti etnofarmacologici e nutrizionali dei licheni. Notiziario [Società Lichenologica Italiana] 5:29–37Google Scholar
  102. Goldie WH (1904) Maori Medical Lore. Trans Proc Roy Soc N Z 37:1–120Google Scholar
  103. Gonzales de la Cruz M, Baldeón Malpartida S, Beltrán Santiago H et al (2014) Hot and cold: medicinal plant uses in Quechua speaking communities in the high Andes (Callejón de Huaylas, Ancash, Perú). J Ethnopharmacol 155:1093–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. González-Tejero MR, Martínez-Lirola MJ, Casares-Porcel M, Molero-Mesa J (1995) Three lichens used in popular medicine in eastern Andalucia (Spain). Econ Bot 49:96–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Goodrich J, Lawson C, Lawson VP (1980) Kashaya Pomo plants. American Indian Monograph Series 2. University of California, USAGoogle Scholar
  106. Gourdon R (1687) A receipt to cure mad dogs, or men or beasts bitten by mad dogs. Phil Trans R Soc London 16:298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Grasser S, Schunko C, Vogl CR (2012) Gathering “tea” – from necessity to connectedness with nature. Local knowledge about wild plant gathering in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 8:31PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Guarrera PM, Lucchese F, Medori S (2008) Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 4:7PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Güvenç A, Küpeli Akkol E, Süntar İ et al (2012) Biological activities of Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf extracts and isolation of the active compounds. J Ethnopharmacol 144:726–734PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Hale BW, DePriest PT (1999) Mason E. Hale’s list of epithets in the parmelioid genera. Bryologist 102:462–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Hart J (1974) Plant taxonomy of the Salish and Kootenai Indians of Western Montana. M.A. thesis, University of Montana, USAGoogle Scholar
  112. Hart J (1976) Montana – native plants and early peoples. The Montana Historical Society, USAGoogle Scholar
  113. Hartley D, Sandys F, Wollaston F (1737) Another case of a person bit by a mad-dog. Phil Trans R Soc London 40:274–276Google Scholar
  114. Hawksworth DL (2003) Hallucinogenic and toxic lichens. Int Lichenological Newsl 36:33–35Google Scholar
  115. Hebda RJ, Turner NJ, Birchwater S et al (1996) Ulkatcho food and medicine plants. Ulkatcho Indian Band, Anahim Lake, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  116. Hellson JC, Gadd M (1974) Ethnobotany of the Blackfoot Indians. National Museum of Man Mercury Series 19. Ottawa, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  117. Herrick JW (1995) Iroquois medical botany. Syracuse University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  118. Hersch-Martínez P (1997) Medicinal plants and regional traders in Mexico: physiographic differences and conservational challenge. Econ Bot 51:107–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Hooper D (1937) Useful plants and drugs of Iran and Iraq. Botanical Series 9(3). Field Museum of Natural History, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  120. Houghton PJ, Manby J (1985) Medicinal plants of the Mapuche. J Ethnopharmacol 13:89–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Hu S, Kong YC, But PPH (1980) An enumeration of the Chinese Materia Medica. The Chinese University Press, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  122. Hunn ES (1990) Nch’i-Wána: “The Big River”: Mid-Columbia Indians and their land. University of Washington Press, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  123. Hunn G (2005) Unpublished 1976–1980 ethnobotany field notes.Google Scholar
  124. Hunte P, Safi M, Macey A, Kerr GB (1975) Folk methods of fertility regulation; and the traditional birth attendant (the dai). US Agency for International Development, BuffaloGoogle Scholar
  125. Inngjerdingen K, Nergård CS, Diallo D et al (2004) An ethnopharmacological survey of plants used for wound healing in Dogonland, Mali, West Africa. J Ethnopharmacol 92:233–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. James R (1748) Dictionnaire universel de medecine. Braisson, David l’aîné, Durand, ParisGoogle Scholar
  127. Ji H, Shengji P, Chunlin L (2004) An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Lisu people in Nujiang, Northwest Yunnan. China Econ Bot 58(Suppl 1):S253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Jiang B, Zhao Q-S, Peng L-Y et al (2002) Constituents from Thamnolia vermicularis. Acta Bot Yunnanica 24:525–530Google Scholar
  129. Jin B, Liu Y, Xie J et al (2018) Ethnobotanical survey of plant species for herbal tea in a Yao autonomous county (Jianghua, China): results of a 2-year study of traditional medicinal markets on the Dragon Boat Festival. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 14:58PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Johnson LM (1997) Health, wholeness, and the land: Gitksan traditional plant use and healing. Ph.D. thesis, University of Alberta, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  131. Johnson LM (2006) Gitksan medicinal plants-cultural choice and efficacy. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2:29PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Jorim RY, Korape S, Legu W et al (2012) An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the eastern highlands of Papua New Guinea. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 8:47PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Ju Y, Zhuo J, Liu B, Long C (2013) Eating from the wild: diversity of wild edible plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la region, Yunnan, China. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 9:28PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Karadi K (2010) A pharmacognostical and analytical study of Shaileya (Parmelia species) W.S.R. to different market samples. M.D. thesis, Rajiv Gandi University of Health Sciences, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  135. Kari PR (1987) Tanaina Plantlore. US National Park Service, Anchorage, AKGoogle Scholar
  136. Kawagoe S (1925) The market fungi of Japan. Trans Br Mycol Soc 10:201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Kay MS (1995) Environmental, cultural, and linguistic factors affecting Ulkatcho (Carrier) botanical knowledge. M.Sc. thesis, University of Victoria, Canada.Google Scholar
  138. Kerry-Nicholls JH (1886) The origin, physical characteristics, and manners and customs of the Maori race. J Anthropol Inst G B Irel 15:187–209Google Scholar
  139. Khalid H, Abdalla WE, Abdelgadir H et al (2012) Gems from traditional north-African medicine: medicinal and aromatic plants from Sudan. Nat Prod Bioprospect 2(3):92–103PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Kim H, Song M-J, Potter D (2006) Medicinal efficacy of plants utilized as temple food in traditional Korean Buddhism. J Ethnopharmacol 104:32–46PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. Kiringe JW (2008) A survey of traditional health remedies used by the Maasai of Southern Kaijiado District, Kenya. Ethnobot Res Appl 4:61–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Kokwaro JO (1976) Medicinal plants of East Africa. East African Lit. Bur., NairobiGoogle Scholar
  143. Kolosova V, Svanberg I, Kalle R et al (2017) The bear in Eurasian plant names: motivations and models. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 13:14PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Kong YC, Chen DS (1996) Elucidation of Islamic drugs in Hui Hui Yao Fang: a linguistic and pharmaceutical approach. J Ethnopharmacol 54:85–102PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. Kujawska M, Łuczaj Ł, Typek J (2015) Fischer’s Lexicon of Slavic beliefs and customs: a previously unknown contribution to the ethnobotany of Ukraine and Poland. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 11:85PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Kumar K, Upreti DK (2001) Parmelia spp. (lichens) in ancient medicinal plant lore of India. Econ Bot 55:458–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Kumar S, Banskota AH, Manandhar MD (1996) Isolation and identification of some chemical constituents of Parmelia nepalensis. Planta Med 62:93–94PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. La Barre W (1948) The Aymara Indians of the Lake Titicaca Plateau, Bolivia. Mem Am Anthropol Assoc 68:1–250Google Scholar
  149. La XN, Liang H, Ba GN, Tai BD (2015) Chemical constituents from Usnea longgisima, a traditional Mongolian medicine (II). Zhong Yao Cai 38(12):2541–2542PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. Laidler PW (1928) The magic medicine of the Hottentots. S Afr J Sci 25:433–447Google Scholar
  151. Lal B, Upreti DK (1995) Ethnobotanical notes on three Indian lichens. Lichenologist 27:77–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Lama YC, Ghimire SK, Aumeeruddy-Thomas Y (2001) Medicinal plants of Dolpo: Amchis’ knowledge and conservation. WWF Nepal Program, KathmanduGoogle Scholar
  153. Lamont SM (1977) The Fisherman Lake Slave and their environment: a story of floral and faunal resources. M.Sc. thesis, University of Saskatchewan, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  154. Lavergne R (1989) Plantes medicinales indigenes tisanerie et tisaneurs de la Reunion. Ph.D. thesis, Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, FranceGoogle Scholar
  155. Layard DP (1757) An essay on the nature, causes, and cure of the contagious distemper among the horned cattle in these kingdoms. John Rivington et al., LondonGoogle Scholar
  156. Lebail JBEF (1853) Des lichens, considérés sous le point de vue économique, médical, et physiologique (nutrition). M.D. thesis, Faculté de Médecine de Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  157. Leduc C, Coonishish J, Haddad P, Cuerrier A (2006) Plants used by the Cree Nation of Eeyou Istchee (Quebec, Canada) for the treatment of diabetes: a novel approach in quantitative ethnobotany. J Ethnopharmacol 105:55–63PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. Lee SJ (1966) Korean folk medicine. Seoul National University, SeoulGoogle Scholar
  159. Lee EB, Yun HS, Woo WS (1977) Plants and animals used for fertility regulation in Korea. Kor J Pharmacognosy 8:81–88Google Scholar
  160. Leighton AL (1985) Wild plant use by the Woods Cree (Nihithawak) of east-central Saskatchewan. National Museum of Man Mercury Series 101. Ottawa, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  161. Lev E (2007) Drugs held and sold by pharmacists of the Jewish community of medieval (11–14th centuries) Cairo according to lists of materia medica found at the Taylor–Schechter Genizah collection, Cambridge. J Ethnopharmacol 110:275–293PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. Li F, Zhuo J, Liu B et al (2015) Ethnobotanical study on wild plants used by Lhoba people in Milin County, Tibet. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 11:23PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Lightfoot J (1777) Flora Scotica. B. White, LondonGoogle Scholar
  164. Lindley J (1838) Flora Medica. Longman et al., LondonGoogle Scholar
  165. Linnaeus C (1737) Flora Lapponica. Apud Salomonem Schouten, AmstelaedamiGoogle Scholar
  166. Linnaeus C (1753) Species plantarum. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, HolmiæGoogle Scholar
  167. Lipp FJ (1995) Ethnobotanical method and fact: a case study. In: Schultes RE, Reis S (eds) Ethnobotany: evolution of a discipline. Dioscorides Press, Oregon, pp 52–59Google Scholar
  168. Llano GA (1948) Economic uses of lichens. Econ Bot 2:15–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Loi MC, Poli F, Sacchetti G et al (2004) Ethnopharmacology of Ogliastra (Villagrande Strisaili, Sardinia, Italy). Fitoterapia 75:277–295PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  170. Lokar LC, Poldini L (1988) Herbal remedies in the traditional medicine of the Venezia Giulia Region (North East Italy). J Ethnopharmacol 22:231–279PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  171. Londoño-Castañeda PA, Buril MLL, Rego-Cunha IP et al (2017) Lichens used in the traditional medicine by the Pankararu Indigenous Community, Pernambuco-Brazil. Global J Sci Front Res C Biol Sci 17(4)Google Scholar
  172. López Eire A, Cortés Gabaudan F, Gutiérrez Rodilla BM, Vázquez de Benito MC (2006) Estudios y Traducción. Dioscórides. Sobre los remedios medicinales. Manuscrito de Salamanca. Ediciones Universidad, SpainGoogle Scholar
  173. Luo B, Liu Y, Liu B et al (2018) Yao herbal medicinal market during the Dragon Boat Festival in Jianghua County, China. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 14:61PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Luyken JA (1809) Tentamen historiae lichenum in genere cui accedunt primae lineae distributionis novae. Henry Dieterich, GottingenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Mabogo DEN (1990) The ethnobotany of the Vhavenda. M.Sc. thesis, Department of Botany, University of Pretoria, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  176. Macdonald C (1974) Medicines of the Maori. Collins, AucklandGoogle Scholar
  177. Macía MJ, García E, Vidaurre PJ (2005) An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants commercialized in the markets of La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia. J Ethnopharmacol 97:337–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. MacIntyre D (1999) The role of Scottish native plants in natural dyeing and textiles. University of Edinburgh, ScotlandGoogle Scholar
  179. Madamombe IT, Afolayan AJ (2003) Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of extracts from South African Usnea barbata. Pharm Biol 41:199–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Madulid DA, Gaerlan FJM, Romero EM, Agoo EMG (1989) Ethnopharmacological study of the Ati tribe in Nagpana, Barotac Viejo, Iloilo. Acta Manilana 38:25–40Google Scholar
  181. Marc EB, Nelly A, Annick D-D, Frederic D (2008) Plants used as remedies antirheumatic and antineuralgic in the traditional medicine of Lebanon. J Ethnopharmacol 120:315–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Marcano V (1991) Propriedades biomedicas de las embriofitas asifonogamas andinas: II liquenes. Rev Fac Farm 28:1–13Google Scholar
  183. Marcano V, Rodriguez-Alcocer V, Morales Méndez A (1999) Occurrence of usnic acid in Usnea laevis Nylander (lichenized ascomycetes) from the Venezuelan Andes. J Ethnopharmacol 66:343–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Marles RJ (1984) The ethnobotany of the Chipewyan of Northern Saskatchewan. M.Sc. thesis, University of Saskatchewan, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  185. Marles RJ, Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service (2000) Aboriginal plant use in Canada’s northwest boreal forest. UBC Press, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  186. Marshall AG (1977) Nez Perce social groups: an ecological interpretation. Ph.D. thesis, Washington State University, USAGoogle Scholar
  187. Martínez-Lirola MJ, González-Tejero MR, Molero-Mesa J (1996) Ethnobotanical resources in the province of Almería, Spain: Campo de Nijar. Econ Bot 50:40–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Masson C (1842) Narrative of various journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan and the Panjab. Richard Bentley, LondonGoogle Scholar
  189. Matsiliza B, Barker NP (2001) A preliminary survey of plants used in traditional medicine in the Grahamstown area. S Afr J Bot 67:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Mattalia G, Quave CL, Pieroni A (2013) Traditional uses of wild food and medicinal plants among Brigasc, Kyé, and Provençal communities on the Western Italian Alps. Genet Resour Crop Evol 60:587–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Matthiolus PA (1586) De plantis epitome utilissima. Johann Feyerabend, FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  192. McClatchey WC (1993) The traditional Rotuman medicinal system and ethnopharmacopoea. M.Sc. thesis, Brigham Young University, USAGoogle Scholar
  193. McClintock W (1910) The old north trail. MacMillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  194. McCormack G (2007) Cook Islands biodiversity database, version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga. cookislands.bishopmuseum.org
  195. McGlinchey C (1986) The last of the name. Edited by B Friel, Blackstaff, BelfastGoogle Scholar
  196. Mckenna DJ, Towers GHN, Abbott FS (1984) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors in South American hallucinogenic plants part 2: constituents of orally-active Myristicaceous hallucinogens. J Ethnopharmacol 12:179–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. McKennan RA (1959) The upper Tanana Indians. Yale University Publ in Anthrop 55:1–226Google Scholar
  198. Mead GR (1972) The ethnobotany of the California Indians: a compendium of the plants, their users, and their uses. Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado, USAGoogle Scholar
  199. Merriam CH (1966) Ethnographic notes on California Indian tribes. University of California Archaeological Research Facility, USAGoogle Scholar
  200. Miara MD, Hammou MA, Aoul SH (2013) Phytothérapie et taxonomie des plantes médicinales spontanées dans la région de Tiaret (Algérie). Phytothérapie 11:206–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Milliken W, Miller RP, Pollard SR, Wandelli EV (1992) Ethnobotany of the Waimiri Atroari Indians of Brazil. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  202. Mitchell ME (2015) Contentious cures: the rise and decline of lichens as European materia medica. Pharm Hist 57:55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Modenesi P (2009) Skull lichens: a curious chapter in the history of phytotherapy. Fitoterapia 80:145–148PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  204. Molares S, Ladio A (2014) Medicinal plants in the cultural landscape of a Mapuche-Tehuelche community in arid Argentine Patagonia: an eco-sensorial approach. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 10:61PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Mortimer C (1735) A narration of the experiments made June 1, 1734. Phil Trans R Soc London 39:313–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Moskalenko SA (1986) Preliminary screening of far-eastern ethnomedicinal plants for antibacterial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 15:231–259PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  207. Moxham TH (1986) The commercial exploitation of lichens for the perfume industry. In: Brunke EJ (ed) Progress in essential oil research. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, pp 491–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Müller J (1881) Lichenologische Beiträge XIV. Flora Odor Allgemeine Botanische Zeitung 64:513–527Google Scholar
  209. Muntané J (1991) Aportació al coneixement de l’Ethnobotánic de Cerdanya. Ph.D. thesis, University of Barcelona, SpainGoogle Scholar
  210. Muthee JK, Gakuya DW, Mbaria JM et al (2011) Ethnobotanical study of anthelmintic and other medicinal plants traditionally used in Loitoktok district of Kenya. J Ethnopharmacol 135:15–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Nadkarni KM, Nadkarni AK (1955) Indian materia medica. Popular Book Depot, BombayGoogle Scholar
  212. Nagendra Prasada P, Ranjit Singh AJA, Narayanan LM, Natarajan CR (1996) Ethnobotany of the Kanikkars of South Tamilnadu – I. Ethnobotany in South Asia. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India, pp 292–298Google Scholar
  213. Natale AD, Pollio A (2012) A forgotten collection: the Libyan ethnobotanical exhibits (1912–14) by A. Trotter at the Museum O. Comes at the University Federico II in Naples, Italy. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 8:4PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Nedelcheva A, Draganov S (2014) Bulgarian medical ethnobotany: the power of plants in pragmatic and poetic frames. In: Pieroni A, Quave CL (eds) Ethnobotany and biocultural diversityies in the Balkans. Springer, New York, pp 45–65Google Scholar
  215. Nissen K (1921) Lapponian lichen names. In: Lynge B (ed) Studies on the lichen flora of Norway. Jacob Dybwad, Oslo, pp 238–247Google Scholar
  216. Novaretti R, Lemordant D (1990) Plants in the traditional medicine of the Ubaye Valley. J Ethnopharmacol 30:1–34PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. O’Neill AR, Badola HK, Dhyani PP, Rana SK (2017) Integrating ethnobiological knowledge into biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 13:21PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Odabasoglu F, Cakir A, Suleyman H et al (2006) Gastroprotective and antioxidant effects of usnic acid on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 103:59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Ohmura Y (2003) What species of Japanese lichens are edible? Lichen: News Bulletin of the Lichenological Society of Japan 13:6–9Google Scholar
  220. Osorio HS (1982) Contribution to the lichen flora of Uruguay XVII. The scientific name of the “Yerba de la Piedra”. Phytologia 52:217–220Google Scholar
  221. Oswalt WH (1957) A western Eskimo ethnobotany. Anthropol Pap Univ Alaska 6:16–36Google Scholar
  222. Pardanani DS, DeLima RJ, Rao RV et al (1976) Study of the effects of speman on semen quality in oligospermic men. Indian J Surg 38:34–39Google Scholar
  223. Parkinson J (1640) Theatrum botanicum. Tho. Cotes, LondonGoogle Scholar
  224. Pennington CW (1963) The Tarahumar of Mexico: their environment and material culture. University of Utah Press, USAGoogle Scholar
  225. Pennington CW (1969) The Tepehuan of Chihuaha: their material culture. University of Utah Press, USAGoogle Scholar
  226. Pereira J (1850) The elements of materia medica and therapeutics, vol II, part II. Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, LondonGoogle Scholar
  227. Pérez-Nicolás M, Vibrans H, Romero-Manzanares A et al (2017) Patterns of knowledge and use of medicinal plants in Santiago Camotlán, Oaxaca, Mexico. Econ Bot 71:209–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Pieroni A (2000) Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy. J Ethnopharmacol 70:235–273PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  229. Pieroni A, Giusti ME (2009) Alpine ethnobotany in Italy: traditional knowledge of gastronomic and medicinal plants among the Occitans of the upper Varaita valley, Piedmont. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 5:32PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Pieroni A, Dibra B, Grishaj G et al (2005) Traditional phytotherapy of the Albanians of Lepushe, Northern Albanian Alps. Fitoterapia 76:379–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Pieroni A, Rexhepi B, Nedelcheva A et al (2013) One century later: the folk botanical knowledge of the last remaining Albanians of the upper Reka Valley, Mount Korab, Western Macedonia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 9:22PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Pollan M (2001) The botany of desire: a plant’s eye view of the world. Random House, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  233. Poudel P (2008) Medicinal plants of change VDC of Taplejung. Eastern Nepal, KathmanduGoogle Scholar
  234. Powers S (1877) Aboriginal botany. In: Tribes of California. Government Printing House, Washington, pp 419–431Google Scholar
  235. Pradhan BK, Badola HK (2008) Ethnomedicinal plant use by Lepcha tribe of Dzongu valley, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in North Sikkim, India. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 4:22PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Prance GT (1972) Ethnobotanical notes from Amazonian Brazil. Econ Bot 26:221–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Pranskuniene Z, Dauliute R, Pranskunas A, Bernatoniene J (2018) Ethnopharmaceutical knowledge in Samogitia region of Lithuania: where old traditions overlap with modern medicine. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 14:70PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Prasad R (2013) Ayurveda therapeutics workshop – explore traditional recipes from kottakkal arya vaidya sala. Handout 2. AVS Kottakkal AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  239. Quincy J (1724) Pharmcopoeia Officianalis & Extemporanea. E. Bell in Cornhill, W. Taylor in Paternoster-Row, and J. Osborn in LondonGoogle Scholar
  240. Ranby, Peters C (1744) The case of a person bit by a mad dog. Phil Trans R Soc London 43:257–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Randlane T, Saag A, Thell A, Ahti T (2013) Third world list of cetrarioid lichens – in a new databased form, with amended phylogenetic and type information. Cryptogam Mycol 34:79–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Rauf A, Afaq SH, Latif A (2006) Pharmacognostical standardization of “Ushna” a cardiotonic drug mentioned in Adviya Qalbiya. In: Abdin MZ, Abrol YP (eds) Traditional systems of medicine. Narrosa House, New Delhi, pp 226–235Google Scholar
  243. Rauf A, Latif A, Rehman S, Afaq SH (2011) In-vitro antibacterial screening of extracts of Usnea longissima lichen. Int J Appl Biol Pharm Technol 2:14–18Google Scholar
  244. Ray J (1686) Historia plantarum. Mariæ Clark and Henricum Faithorne Regiæ Societatis Typographum, LondonGoogle Scholar
  245. Raymond M (1945) III. Notes ethnobotaniques sur les Tête-de-Boule de manouan. Études Ethnobotaniques Québécoises 55:113–154Google Scholar
  246. Razzack HMA, Fazal HMU (1993) The concept of birth control in Unani medicine. Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, New DehliGoogle Scholar
  247. Rebesca MA, Romie D, Johnson M, Ryan J (1994) Traditional Dene medicine part I: Report. Dene Cultural Institute, Lac La Martre, NWT, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  248. Redžić SS (2007) The ecological aspect of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology of population in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Collegium Antropologicum 31(3):869–890PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Regnault JB (1802) Observations on pulmonary consumption, or an essay on the Lichen islandicus, considered both as an aliment and a medicine in that disorder. J. Smeeton, LondonGoogle Scholar
  250. Richardson DHS (1974) The vanishing lichens: their history and importance. Hafner Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  251. Rink HJ, Lindorff JFT (1856) Help to the patients. Originally published in Greenland. Translated and reprinted by U. Søchting in Graphis Scripta 3:24 (1990)Google Scholar
  252. Robbins WW, Harrington JP, Freire-Marreco BW (1916) Ethnobotany of the Tewa Indians. Smithson Inst Bur Am Ethnol Bull 55:1–124Google Scholar
  253. Rodríguez MA, Angueyra A, Cleef AM, van Andel T (2018) Ethnobotany of the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy-Güicán: climate change and conservation strategies in the Colombian Andes. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 14:34PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Rout J, Kar A, Upreti DK (2005) Traditional remedy for kidney stones from a high altitude lichen: Cladonia rangiferina L. Wigg (reindeer moss) of Eastern Himalaya. Ethnobotany 17:164–166Google Scholar
  255. Ruíz Leal A (1972) Flora Popular Mendocina. Deserta 3:36–38Google Scholar
  256. Russell A (1973) Horns in the high country. Knopf, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  257. Sak K, Jürisoo K, Raal A (2014) Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies: from past to the future. J Pharm Biol 52:855–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Saklani A, Jain SK (1994) Cross-cultural ethnobotany of Northeast India. Deep Publishers, New DehliGoogle Scholar
  259. Salick J, Byg A, Amend A et al (2006) Tibetan medicine plurality. Econ Bot 60(3):227–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Šarić-Kundalić B, Dobeš C, Klatte-Asselmeyer V, Saukel J (2010) Ethnobotanical study on medicinal use of wild and cultivated plants in middle, south and west Bosnia and Herzegovina. J Ethnopharmacol 131:33–55PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  261. Sato M (1968) An edible lichen of Japan, Gyrophora esculenta Miyoshi. Nova Hedwigia 16:505–509Google Scholar
  262. Scarpa GF (2004) Medicinal plants used by the Criollos of Northwestern Argentine Chaco. J Ethnopharmacol 91:115–135PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  263. Scarpa GF (2009) Etnobotánica médica de los indígenas chorote y su comparación con la de los criollos del Chaco semiárido (Argentina). Darwiniana 47(1):92–107Google Scholar
  264. Schade A (1954) Über Letharia vulpina (L.) Vain. und ihre Vorkommen in der Alten Welt. Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft 30:108–126Google Scholar
  265. Schmull M, Dal-Forno M, Lücking R et al (2014) Dictyonema huaorani (Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae), a new lichenized basidiomycete from Amazonian Ecuador with presumed hallucinogenic properties. Bryologist 117(4):386–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Scopoli GA (1760) Flora Carniolica. Sumptibus J.T. Trattner, ViennaeGoogle Scholar
  267. Senft E (1911) The so-called “Lichen Quercinus virides”. Pharmazeutische Post 43:1017–1019Google Scholar
  268. Shah NC (1998) Lichens of economic importance from the hills of Uttar Pradesh, India. J Herbs Spices Med Plants 5:69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Sharma GK (1997) Ethnomedicinal flora: ayurvedic system of medicine in a remote part of the Indo-Tibetan Himalayas. J Tenn Acad Sci 72:53–54Google Scholar
  270. Sharnoff SD (1997) Lichens and people. www.lichen.com/
  271. Shou-Zhong Y (1998) The divine farmer’s materia medica: a translation of the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing. Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, COGoogle Scholar
  272. Shrestha N, Shrestha S, Koju L et al (2016) Medicinal plant diversity and traditional healing practices in eastern Nepal. J Ethnopharmacol 192:292–301PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  273. Siegel RK (1989) Intoxication: life in pursuit of artificial paradise. Pocket Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  274. Siegel RK (2013) Inquiry about use of lichens as narcotics, corresp with S Crawford, June 29, 2013Google Scholar
  275. Siegfried EV (1994) Ethnobotany of the northern Cree of Wabasca/Desmarais. M.A. thesis, University of Calgary, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  276. Silalahi M, Nisyawati WEB et al (2015) The local knowledge of medicinal plants trader and diversity of medicinal plants in the Kabanjahe traditional market, North Sumatra, Indonesia. J Ethnopharmacol 175:432–443PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  277. Singh H, Husain T, Agnihotri P et al (2012) Biodiversity conservation through traditional beliefs system: a case study from Kumaon Himalayas, India. Int J Conserv Sci 3(1):33–40Google Scholar
  278. Smith A (1888) A contribution to South African Materia Medica. J. C. Jula & Co., Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  279. Smith AL (1921) Lichens. Cambridge University Press, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Smith HH (1923) Ethnobotany of the Menomini Indian. Bull Public Mus Milwaukee 4:1–174Google Scholar
  281. Smith HI (1929) Materia medica of the Bella Coola and neighbouring tribes of British Columbia. Bull – Natl Mus Can 56:47–68Google Scholar
  282. Smith HH (1932) Ethnobotany of the Ojibwe Indians. Bull Public Mus Milwaukee 4:327–525Google Scholar
  283. Smith HH (1933) Ethnobotany of the Forest Potawatomi Indians. Bull Public Mus Milwaukee 7:1–230Google Scholar
  284. Smith GW (1973) Arctic Pharmacognosia. Arctic 26:324–333Google Scholar
  285. Søchting U (1999) Lichens of Bhutan: biodiversity and use. Department of Mycology, University of Copenhagen, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  286. Soelberg J, Jäger AK (2016) Comparative ethnobotany of the Wakhi agropastoralist and the Kyrgyz nomads of Afghanistan. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 12:2PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Sohrabi M, Ahti T (2010) Nomenclatural synopsis of the Old World’s “manna” lichens (Aspicilia, Megasporaceae). Taxon 59:628–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Sõukand R, Kalle R (2013) Where does the border lie: locally grown plants used for making tea for recreation and/or healing, 1970s–1990s Estonia. J Ethnopharmacol 150:162–174PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  289. Stevens J, Palliser J, Avataq Cultural Institute (1984) Traditional medicine project = Project sur la médecine traditionelle. Avataq Cultural Institute, Inukjuak, QuebecGoogle Scholar
  290. Steward T (1738) Concerning the virtues of the star of the earth. Phil Trans R Soc London 40:449–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Stoffle RW, Evans MJ, Halmo DB et al (1989) Native American plant resources in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada. Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NVGoogle Scholar
  292. Stoffle RW, Evans MJ, Halmo DB et al (1994) Native American cultural resources on Pahute and Rainier Mesas, Nevada Test Site. Desert Research Institute Technical Report No. 84Google Scholar
  293. Stopp K (1963) Medicinal plants of the Mt. Hagen people (Mbowamb) in New Guinea. Econ Bot 17:16–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Strandman P (1769) Purgantia indigena. In: Linnaeus C (ed) Amoenitates Academicæ. Sumtu & literis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ, pp 293–310Google Scholar
  295. Stubbs RD (1966) An investigation of the edible and medicinal plants used by the Flathead Indians. M.A. thesis, University of Montana, USAGoogle Scholar
  296. Subramanian SS, Ramakrishnan S (1964) Amino-acids of Peltigera canina. Curr Sci 33:522Google Scholar
  297. Teit JA, Boas F (1900) The Thompson Indians of British Columbia. Am Mus Nat Hist Mem 2:163–392Google Scholar
  298. Teit JA, Boas F (1928) The Salishan tribes of the western plateaus. Rep Bur Am Ethnol Secr Smithson Inst 45:23–296Google Scholar
  299. Thell A, Feuerer T, Kärnefelt I et al (2004) Monophyletic groups within the Parmeliaceae identified by ITS rDNA, β-tubulin and GADPH sequences. Mycol Prog 3:297–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Thell A, Crespo A, Divakar PK et al (2012) A review of the lichen family Parmeliaceae – history, phylogeny and current taxonomy. Nord J Bot 30:641–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Tonning H (1769) Rariora Norvegiæ. In: Linnaeus C (ed) Amoenitates Academicæ. Sumtu & literis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ, pp 466–496Google Scholar
  302. Train P, Archer WA, Henrichs JR (1941) Medicinal uses of plants by Indian tribes of Nevada. Contributions Toward a Flora of Nevada 33. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  303. Trevelyan M (1909) Folk-lore and Folk-stories of Wales. Elliot Stock, LondonGoogle Scholar
  304. Truong C, Divakar PK, Yahr R et al (2013) Testing the use of ITS rDNA and protein-coding genes in the generic and species delimitation of the lichen genus Usnea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota). Mol Phylogenet Evol 68:357–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Tshiteya RM (2007) Herbal medicines for common ailments: a quick reference guide. Natural Remedies Inc., Alexandria, VAGoogle Scholar
  306. Turner NJ (1973) The ethnobotany of the Bella Coola Indians of British Columbia. Syesis 6:193–220Google Scholar
  307. Turner NJ (1998) Plant technology of first peoples in British Columbia. RBCM handbook. UBC Press, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  308. Turner NJ (2004a) Plants of Haida Gwaii. Sono Nis Press, Winlaw, BCGoogle Scholar
  309. Turner NJ (2004b) Expert report: Tsilhqot’in and Xeni Gwet’in plant use and occupancy. Presented in the William vs. Her Magesty the Queen, Xeni Gwet’in/Tsilhqot’in Land Rights Trial. B.C. Supreme Court, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  310. Turner NJ, Efrat BS (1982) Ethnobotany of the Hesquiat Indians of Vancouver Island. Cultural Recover Paper 2. B.C. Prov. Mus., CanadaGoogle Scholar
  311. Turner NJ, Hebda RJ (2012) Saanich ethnobotany: culturally important plants of the WSANEC people. RBCM, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  312. Turner NJ, Thompson JC (2006) “Nwana”a lax Yuup: plants of the Gitga’at people. Cortex Consulting, School of Environmental Studies, and Coasts Under Stress, Victoria, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  313. Turner NJ, Bouchard R, Kennedy DID (1980) Ethnobotany of the Okanagan-Colville Indians of British Columbia and Washington. Occas Pap BC Prov Mus 21Google Scholar
  314. Turner NJ, Thomas J, Carlson BF, Ogilvie RT (1983) Ethnobotany of the Nitinaht Indians of Vancouver Island. Occas Pap BC Prov Mus 24:1–165Google Scholar
  315. Turner NJ, Thompson LC, Thompson MT, York AZ (1990) Thompson ethnobotany: knowledge and usage of plants by the Thompson Indians of British Columbia. RBCM, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  316. Turney-High HH (1937) The flathead Indians of Montana. Mem Am Anthropol Assoc 48Google Scholar
  317. Tychsen N (1799) Sammenlignende Forsøg med Lichen nivalis og Lichen islandicus. Nye samling af det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrifter 5:372–390Google Scholar
  318. UBC (University of British Columbia) (2014) Accession No. V172209. Herbarium Database. www.biodiversity.ubc.ca/museum/herbarium/vascular/
  319. Uphof JCT (1959) Dictionary of economic plants. Hafner Publishing, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  320. Upreti DK, Chatterjee S (2007) Significance of lichens and their secondary metabolites: a review. In: Ganguli BN, Deshmukh SK (eds) Fungi: multifaceted microbes. Anamaya Publishers, New Dehli, pp 169–188Google Scholar
  321. Upreti DK, Negi HR (1996) Folk use of Thamnolia vermicularis (Swartz) Ach. in Lata Village of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve. Ethnobotany [India] 8:92–95Google Scholar
  322. Upreti DK, Bajpai R, Nayaka S, Singh BN (2016) Ethnolichenological studies in India: future prospects. In: Jain AK (ed) Indian ethnobotany: emerging trends. Scientific Publisher, Jodhpur, pp 195–233Google Scholar
  323. Uprety Y, Asselin H, Boon EK et al (2010) Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 6:3PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Uprety Y, Asselin H, Dhakal A, Julien N (2012) Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 8:7PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. van Damme P, van den Eynden V, Vernemmen P (1992) Plant uses by the Topnaar of the Kuiseb Valley Namib Desert. Afrika Focus 8:223–252Google Scholar
  326. van Wyk B-E, Gorelik B (2017) The history and ethnobotany of Cape herbal teas. S Afr J Bot 110:18–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. van Wyk B-E, de Wet H, Van Heerden FR (2008) An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in the southeastern Karoo, South Africa. S Afr J Bot 74:696–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Vartia KO (1973) Antibiotics in lichens. In: Ahmadjian V, Hale ME (eds) The lichens. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  329. Velasco-Negueruela A, Pérez-Alonso MJ, Abaraca GE (1995) Medicinal plants from Pampallakta: an Andean community in Cuzco (Peru). Fitoterapia 66:447–461Google Scholar
  330. Vestal PA, Schultes RE (1939) The economic botany of the Kiowa Indians, as it relates to the history of the tribe. Botanical Museum, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  331. Vitalini S, Iriti M, Puricelli C et al (2013) Traditional knowledge on medicinal and food plants used in Val San Giacomo (Sondrio, Italy)—An alpine ethnobotanical study. J Ethnopharmacol 145:517–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Vitto LAD, Petenatti EM, Petenatti ME (1997) Recursos herbolarios de San Luis (República Argentina) primera parte: plantas nativas. Multequina:49–66Google Scholar
  333. Vogl CR, Vogl-Lukasser B, Walkenhorst M (2016) Local knowledge held by farmers in Eastern Tyrol (Austria) about the use of plants to maintain and improve animal health and welfare. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 12:40PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. von Kaub JW (1485) Gart der Gesundheit [The Garden of Health]. Peter Schoeffer, MainzGoogle Scholar
  335. von Martens G (1866) Die Preussische Expedition nach Ost-Asien. Botanischer Theil, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  336. Wang LS, Qian ZG (2013) 中国药用地衣图鉴 [Zhong guo yao yong di yi tu jian = Illustrated Medicinal Lichens of China]. Yunnan ke ji chu ban she, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  337. Wang L-S, Narui T, Harada H et al (2001) Ethnic uses of lichens in Yunnan, China. Bryologist 104:345–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Wangchuk P, Namgay K, Gayleg K, Dorji Y (2016) Medicinal plants of Dagala region in Bhutan: their diversity, distribution, uses and economic potential. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 12:28PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. Watson W (1756) An account of some of the more rare English plants observed in Leicestershire. Phil Trans R Soc London 49:803–806Google Scholar
  340. Watt JM, Breyer-Brandwijk MG (1962) The medicinal and poisonous plants of Southern and Eastern Africa, 2nd edn. E. & S. Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  341. Weber GH, Wiggers FH (1780) Primitiae Florae Holsaticae. Litteris Mich. Frider. Bartschii Acad. Typogr., Kiel.Google Scholar
  342. Weckerle CS, Huber FK, Yongping Y, Weibang S (2006) Plant Knowledge of the Shuhi in the Hengduan Mountains, Southwest China. Econ Bot 60(1):3–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Wennekens AJ (1985) Traditional plant usage by Chugach Natives around Prince William Sound and on the Lower Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. M.A. thesis, University of Alaska, USAGoogle Scholar
  344. Whistler WA (1990) Ethnobotany of the Cook Islands: the plants, their Maori names, and their uses. Allertonia 5:347–424Google Scholar
  345. Whiting AF (1939) Ethnobotany of the Hopi. Bull – Mus North Ariz 15Google Scholar
  346. Whitney CW, Gebauer J, Anderson M (2012) A survey of wild collection and cultivation of indigenous species in Iceland. Hum Ecol 40(5):781–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Willemet R (1787) Lichénographie Économique, ou Histoire des Lichens Utiles dans la Médecine et dans les Arts. In: Hoffmann GF et al (eds) Mémoires sur l’utilité des lichens dans la médecine et dans les arts. Chez Piestre et Delamollière, A Lyon, pp 1–48Google Scholar
  348. Wise JRC (1863) The New Forest: its history and its scenery. Smith, Elder, and Co., LondonGoogle Scholar
  349. Withering W (1801) A systematic arrangement of British plants. T. Cadell et al., LondonGoogle Scholar
  350. Wyman LC, Harris SK (1941) Navajo Indian medical ethnobotany. Univ N M Bull Anthropol Ser 3:1–76Google Scholar
  351. Wyman LC, Harris SK (1951) The ethnobotany of the Kayenta Navaho: an analysis of the John and Louisa Wetherill ethnobotanical collection. Univ. N. M. Publ. Biol. 5. University of New Mexico Press, USAGoogle Scholar
  352. Yavuz M (2012) Lichens mentioned by Pedanios Dioscorides. Ethno Medicine 6:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Yavuz M (2013) Lichens in the prescriptions of Pliny the Elder. Oltenia – Studii şi Comunicări Ştiinţele Naturii 29:115–119Google Scholar
  354. Yavuz M, Çobanoğlu G (2010) Ethnological uses and etymology of the word Usnea in Ebubekir Razi’s “Liber Almansoris”. Br Lichen Soc Bull 106:3–12Google Scholar
  355. Yazici K, Aslan A (2003) Lichens from the regions of Guemueshane, Erzincan and Bayburt (Turkey). Cryptogam Mycol 24:287–300Google Scholar
  356. Yeshi K, Wangdi T, Qusar N et al (2018) Geopharmaceuticals of Himalayan Sowa Rigpa medicine: ethnopharmacological uses, mineral diversity, chemical identification and current utilization in Bhutan. J Ethnopharmacol 223:99–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Younos C, Fleurentin J, Notter D et al (1987) Repertory of drugs and medicinal plants used in traditional medicine of Afghanistan. J Ethnopharmacol 20:245–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Zhang C, Hu J (1981) Studies on chemical components of the medicinal lichen “Jin shua ba”, Lethariella cladoniodes (Nyl) Krog. 西北植物研究 (Xi Bei Zhi Wu Yan Jiu) 1:74–76Google Scholar
  359. Zhang L, Zhang Y, Pei S et al (2015) Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal dietary plants used by the Naxi People in Lijiang Area, Northwest Yunnan, China. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 11:40PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Zhang L, Chai Z, Zhang Y et al (2016) Ethnobotanical study of traditional edible plants used by the Naxi people during droughts. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 12:39PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Zwelfer J (1672) Pharmacopoeia augustana. Apud Vincentium Caimax, DordrechtiGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stuart D. Crawford
    • 1
  1. 1.Crawford Ecological ConsultingMassetCanada

Personalised recommendations