Breast Disease pp 555-577 | Cite as

Neurological Metastases

  • Sule Karaman
  • Seden Kucucuk


Breast cancer is the second most common cause of central nervous system (CNS) metastases and the most common cause of leptomeningeal metastases. The brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, leptomeninges, and eyes are the parts of the CNS that are at risk for breast cancer metastases. With the advancements in systematic treatment and radiotherapy (RT) techniques, longer overall survival and disease-free survival have been achieved in metastatic brain cancer. Therefore, CNS metastasis has become a clinical problem warranting more attention. Although CNS metastases are not as common as bone and visceral organ metastases, their progressiveness, poor prognosis, and lack of effective, systemic treatment options pose a difficult challenge for the clinician and the patient.

In this section, parenchymal brain metastases and epidural and leptomeningeal metastases of breast cancer and their treatment will be described, and a neurological injury that occurs in breast cancer patients called brachial plexopathy and its treatment will be discussed.


Metastatic breast cancer  Brain metastases  Leptomeningeal metastases  Epidural metastases  Stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT)  Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT)  Radiosurgery  Brain irradiation  Adjuvant WBRT  Hippocampus-sparing radiotherapy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sule Karaman
    • 1
  • Seden Kucucuk
    • 1
  1. 1.Radiation Oncology DepartmentIstanbul University Institute of OncologyÇapa, IstanbulTurkey

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