Advertisement

Options for Providing Microbiologically Safe Drinking Water

  • Christon J. Hurst
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Environmental Microbiology book series (AEM, volume 7)

Abstract

This chapter describes how to provide microbiologically safe drinking water for different population groups, ranging from large municipalities to small communities and households. Information is presented about potential sources of treatable water including surface water, springs and seeps, groundwater, rainwater and fog. Storage of rainwater harvested by ground catchments and roof catchments also is explained. The appropriate processes for treating water are sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation, filtration and disinfection. Those processes often are achieved differently depending upon the population size that is being served. For example, disinfecting water by boiling works well to centrally treat water at the household level but trying to centrally boil enough water to supply a population of one million people would be unmanageable. I also have included information about safely distributing drinking water including the use of municipal plumbing networks, tanker trucks, prepackaged bottled water, water vending machines, and water dispensers. As a final topic, I explain how water is collected and recycled aboard the International Space Station along with images which show the developmental testing of that technology.

Keywords

Drinking water Water treatment Bottled water International Space Station water recycling 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Christon J. Hurst declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals.

References

  1. Abiyu A, Yan D, Girma A et al (2018) Wastewater treatment potential of Moringa stenopetala over Moringa olifera as a natural coagulant, antimicrobial agent and heavy metal removals. Cogent Environ Sci 4:1433507.  https://doi.org/10.1080/23311843.2018.1433507 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrawal VK, Bhalwar R (2009) Household water purification: low-cost interventions. Med J Armed Forces India 65(3):260–263.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-1237(09)80019-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al Moosa ME, Khan MA, Alalami U et al (2015) Microbiological quality of drinking water from water dispenser machines. Int J Environ Sci Dev 6(9):710–713.  https://doi.org/10.7763/IJESD.2015.V6.685 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alo MN, Anyim C, Elom M (2012) Coagulation and antimicrobial activities of Moringa oleifera seed storage at 3°C temperature in turbid water. Adv Appl Sci Res 3(2):887–894Google Scholar
  5. Amenu D (2014) Microbiological quality of bottled water, international perspective. World J Nat Appl Sci 1(1):1–10Google Scholar
  6. Bajszár G, Dekonenko A (2010) Stress-induced Hsp70 gene expression and inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by chlorine-based oxidants. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:1732–1739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brikké F, Bredero M (2003) Linking technology choice with operation and maintenance in the context of community water supply and sanitation. A reference document for planners and project staff. World Health Organization and IRC Water and Sanitation Centre, Geneva. https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/om/wsh9241562153.pdf. Accessed 10 Jan 2019
  8. Bruni M, Spuhler D (2018a) Rapid sand filtration. Sustainable sanitation and water management toolbox. Norwegian University of Life Sciences and Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management, Willisau. https://sswm.info/sswm-university-course/module-6-disaster-situations-planning-and-preparedness/further-resources-0/rapid-sand-filtration. Accessed 2 Feb 2019
  9. Bruni M, Spuhler D (2018b) Slow sand filtration. Sustainable sanitation and water management toolbox. Norwegian University of Life Sciences and Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management, Willisau. https://sswm.info/sswm-university-course/module-6-disaster-situations-planning-and-preparedness/further-resources-0/slow-sand-filtration. Accessed 2 Feb 2019
  10. California Department of Public Health (2014) Water vending machine inspection procedure and operating requirements. State of California, Sacramento. https://www.cdph.ca.gov/Programs/CEH/DFDCS/CDPH%20Document%20Library/FDB/FoodSafetyProgram/Water/WVMIProcedure.pdf. Accessed 23 January 2019
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009) Drinking water treatment methods for backcountry and travel use. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/travel/backcountry_water_treatment.html. Accessed 3 Dec 2018
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) Ceramic filtration. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta. https://www.cdc.gov/safewater/ceramic-filtration.html. Accessed 5 Dec 2018
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014a) Flocculant/disinfectant powder. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta. https://www.cdc.gov/safewater/flocculant-filtration.html. Accessed 5 Dec 2918
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014b) Slow sand filtration. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta. https://www.cdc.gov/safewater/pdf/sand2011.pdf. Accessed 13 Dec 2018
  15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017) Making water safe in an emergency. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/emergency/drinking/making-water-safe.html. Accessed 4 Dec 2018
  16. Chan S, Pullerits K, Riechelmann J et al (2018) Monitoring biofilm function in new and matured full-scale slow sand filters using flow cytometric histogram image comparison (CHIC). Water Res 138:27–36.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.03.032 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chiller TM, Mendoza CE, Lopez MB et al (2006) Reducing diarrhoea in Guatemalan children: randomized controlled trial of flocculant–disinfectant for drinking-water. Bull World Health Organ 84(1):28–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ciochetti DA, Metcalf RH (1984) Pasteurization of naturally contaminated water with solar energy. Appl Environ Microbiol 47:223–228PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Clark PA, Pinedo CA, Fadus M et al (2012) Slow-sand water filter: design, implementation, accessibility and sustainability in developing countries. Med Sci Monit 18(7):RA105–RA117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clasen T, Edmondson P (2006) Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets as an alternative to sodium hypochlorite for the routine treatment of drinking water at the household level. Int J Hyg Environ Health 209(2):173–181.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2005.11.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Colwell RR, Huq A, Islam MS, et al (2003) Reduction of cholera in Bangladeshi villages by simple filtration. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:1051–1055.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0237386100 (See instructions top of page 1053—and notes on first page about boiling)
  22. Crump JA, Okoth GO, Slutsker L et al (2004) Effect of point-of-use disinfection, flocculation and combined flocculation–disinfection on drinking water quality in western Kenya. J Appl Microbiol 97:225–231.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2004.02309.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Daud MK, Nafees M, Ali S (2017) Drinking water quality status and contamination in Pakistan. Biomed Res Int 2017:7908183.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7908183 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. de Kwaadsteniet M, Dobrowsky PH, van Deventer A et al (2013) Domestic rainwater harvesting: microbial and chemical water quality and point-of-use treatment systems. Water Air Soil Pollut 224:1629.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-013-1629-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Despins C, Farahbakhsh K, Leidl C (2009) Assessment of rainwater quality from rainwater harvesting systems in Ontario, Canada. J Water Supply Res Technol-Aqua 58(2):117–134.  https://doi.org/10.2166/aqua.2009.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dodson LL, Bargach J (2015) Harvesting fresh water from fog in rural Morocco: research and impact. Dar Si Hmad’s fogwater project in Aït Baamrane. Proc Eng 107:186–193.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.06.073 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Doerr B, ECHO Staff (2005) Technical note 52 moringa water treatment. ECHO Community, North Fort Myers. https://www.echocommunity.org/en/resources/2d26ef0f-7476-48f5-a2f5-3768c3714b71. Accessed 1 Jan 2019
  28. Federación Nacional de Cafeteros de Colombia, Universidad del Valle Facultad de Ingeniería, Gobernación Departamental del Valle del Cauca (1988) Agua Potable para Comunidades en Zonas Cafeteras del Valle del Cauca, Programa de Potabilización de Agua para Comunidades de la Zona Cafetera del Valle del Cauca. Presentado al 8vo Congreso de Ingenieros de la Federación Nacional de Cafeteros, Manizales 15–17 Septiembre (1988). https://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/255.1-88AG-5951.pdf. Accessed 6 Jan 2019
  29. Federal Emergency Management Agency (2006) Food and water in an emergency. FEMA 477, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Jessup. https://www.fema.gov/pdf/library/f&web.pdf. Accessed 11 Dec 2018
  30. Fewtrell L, Kay D, Wyer M et al (1996) Survey of the microbiological quality of bottled waters (EPG l/9/78) Centre for Research into Environment and Health, the Environment Centre. University of Leeds, LeedsGoogle Scholar
  31. Filtron (2018) Capacitación en uso y mantenimiento. Filtron SA, San Marcos. https://www.filtronnica.com/espa%C3%B1ol/capacitacion/. Accessed 13 Dec 2018
  32. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (2017) Water vending machine requirements. State of Florida, Tallahassee. https://www.freshfromflorida.com/content/download/70052/1633610/water_vending_machine_requirements.pdf. Accessed 23 Jan 2019
  33. Fredrickson T (2017) Almost half of coin-operated water vending machines substandard. Bangkok Post 25 May 2017, Bangkok. https://www.bangkokpost.com/learning/advanced/1256079/almost-half-of-coin-operated-water-vending-machines-substandard. Accessed 6 Jan 2019
  34. Galvis Castaño G, Latorre Montero J, Visscher JT (1999) Filtración en múltiples etapas: tecnología innovativa para el tratamiento de agua. Universidad del Valle; Cinara, Cali. https://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/255.9-99FI-17025.pdf. Accessed 31 Mar 2019
  35. Ghaderpoori M, Dehghani MH, Fazlzadeh M (2009) Survey of microbial quality of drinking water in rural areas of Saqqez, Iran. Am Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci 5(5):627–632Google Scholar
  36. Gutiérrez JP, van Halem D, Rietveld L (2017) Riverbank filtration for the treatment of highly turbid Colombian rivers. Drink Water Eng Sci 10:13–26.  https://doi.org/10.5194/dwes-10-13-2017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Habtemariam S (2017) The African and Arabian Moringa species: chemistry, bioactivity and therapeutic applications. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 155–165.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-102286-3.00011-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hashmi I, Sara Q, Farooq S (2012) Microbiological quality of drinking water in urban communities, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Desalin Water Treat 41:240–248.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2012.664721 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Huq A, Yunus M, Sohel SS et al (2010) Simple sari cloth filtration of water is sustainable and continues to protect villagers from cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh. mBio 1(1):e00034–e00010.  https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00034-10 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Hurst CJ (2001) Disinfection of water: drinking water, recreational water and wastewater. In: Block SS (ed) Disinfection, sterilization and preservation, 5th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 1023–1047Google Scholar
  41. Hurst CJ (2018) Understanding and estimating the risk of waterborne infectious disease associated with drinking water. In: Hurst CJ (ed) The connections between ecology and infectious disease, Advances in environmental microbiology, vol 5. Springer, Cham, pp 59–114.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-92373-4_3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hurst CJ, Roman MC, Garland JL et al (1997) Microbiological aspects of space exploration. ASM News 63:611–615Google Scholar
  43. Innovación para el Desarrollo y la Cooperación Sur-Sur (2018) Filtrón, ceramic filter for drinking water. http://www.ideassonline.org/public/pdf/br_28_60.pdf. Accessed 11 Dec 2018
  44. International Network to Promote Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage (2007) Combating waterborne disease at the household level. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  45. Jeyakumar R, Parimalarenganayaki S, Elango L (2017) River bank filtration for natural treatment of water in India: a review. Int J Civil Eng Technol 8(8):1203–1212Google Scholar
  46. Johnson GA (1916) The typhoid toll. J Am Water Works Assoc 3(2):249–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Johnson R, Scherer T (2011) Filtration: sediment, activated carbon and mixed media (WQ1029 Revised). North Dakota State University Extension Service, Fargo. https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/publications/environment-natural-resources/filtration-sediment-activated-carbon-and-mixed-media. Accessed 14 Dec 2018
  48. Johnson R, Scherer T (2013) Reverse osmosis (WQ1047). North Dakota State University Extension Service, Fargo. https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/h2oqual/watsys/wq1047.pdf. Accessed 31 Jan 2019
  49. Karim MR, Shelly AB, Biswas M (2005) People perception and acceptance of rainwater harvesting in a coastal area in Bangladesh. In: 12th International rainwater catchment systems conference, New Delhi, Nov 2005Google Scholar
  50. Keogh MB, Elmusharaf K, Borde P et al (2017) Evaluation of the natural coagulant Moringa oleifera as a pretreatment for SODIS in contaminated turbid water. Sol Energ 158:448–454.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2017.10.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Laurent P (2005) Household drinking water systems and their impact on people with weakened immunity. Médecins Sans Frontières Holland, Public Health Department, Amsterdam. http://www.who.int/household_water/research/HWTS_impacts_on_weakened_immunity.pdf. Accessed 2 Dec 2018
  52. Leclerc H, Moreau A (2002) Microbiological safety of natural mineral water. FEMS Microbiol Rev 26:207–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Légaré-Julien F, Lemay O, Vallée-Godbout U et al (2018) Laboratory efficacy and disinfection by-product formation of a coagulant/disinfectant tablet for point-of-use water treatment. Water 10:1567.  https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111567 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Luzi S, Tobler M, Suter F et al (2016) SODIS manual guidance on solar water disinfection. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, DubendorfGoogle Scholar
  55. Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship (2014) Drinking water and your health: water storage tanks (cisterns). Manitoba Government, Winnipeg. https://www.gov.mb.ca/waterstewardship/odw/public-info/fact_sheets/pdf/water_factsheet_cisterns.pdf. Accessed 28 Jan 2019.
  56. Mendonça MHM, Roseno SAM, Cachoeira TRL et al (2017) Análise bacteriológica da água de consumo comercializada por caminhões-pipa. Rev Ambient Água 12(3):468–475.  https://doi.org/10.4136/ambi-agua.1934 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Meuli C, Wehrle K (2001) Spring catchment. Series of manuals on water supply, Vol 4. Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in Technology and Management, Saint Gallen. http://skat.ch/book/spring-catchment/. Accessed 11 Jan 2019
  58. Mwabi JK, Mamba BB, MNB M (2012) Removal of Escherichia coli and faecal coliforms from surface water and groundwater by household water treatment devices/systems: a sustainable solution for improving water quality in rural communities of the Southern African development community region. Int J Environ Res Public Health 9(1):139–170.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9010139 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Nagaraj V, Skillman L, Ho G et al (2017) Characterisation and comparison of bacterial communities on reverse osmosis membranes of a full-scale desalination plant by bacterial 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding. Biofilms Microbiomes 3:13.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41522-017-0021-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Nair AT, Ahammed MM (2014) Biosand filtration: a sustainable option for household treatment of drinking water. In: Paper presented at international symposium on integrated water resources management (IWRM-2014) CWRDM, Kozhikode, Kerala, 19–21 Feb 2014. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260865510. Accessed 5 Dec 2018
  61. Naser AM, Higgins EM, Arman S et al (2018) Effect of groundwater iron on residual chlorine in water treated with sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets in rural Bangladesh. Am J Trop Med Hyg 98(4):977–983.  https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0954 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. New England Water Treatment Technology Assistance Center (2018) Optimizing performance of intermittent slow sand filters for microbial removals. New England Water Treatment Technology Assistance Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham. https://www.unh.edu/erg/sites/www.unh.edu.erg/files/media/WTTAC/issf_final_report.pdf. Accessed 12 Dec 2018
  63. Oxfam (2012) Hygiene promotion for HWTS in emergencies. Oxfam, Oxford. https://www.pseau.org/outils/ouvrages/oxfam_uk_hygiene_promotion_for_hwts_in_emergencies_2012.pdf
  64. Parr J, Shaw R (2019) Technical brief 49: Choosing an appropriate technology. Water, Engineering and Development Centre, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, pp 66–68. https://www.lboro.ac.uk/research/wedc/resources/pubs/guides/. Accessed 12 Jan 2019
  65. Payment PL, Richardson J, Siemiatycki R et al (1991) A randomized trial to evaluate the risk of gastrointestinal disease due to consumption of drinking water meeting current microbiological standards. Am J Public Health 81:703–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Payment PJ, Siemiatycki L, Richardson G et al (1997) A prospective epidemiological study of gastrointestinal health effects due to the consumption of drinking water. Int J Environ Health Res 7:5–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. PennState Extension (2016) Rainwater cisterns: design, construction, and treatment. Pennsylvania State University, University Park. https://extension.psu.edu/rainwater-cisterns-design-construction-and-treatment. Accessed 28 Jan 2019
  68. Rahman S, Khan MTR, Akib S et al (2014) Sustainability of rainwater harvesting system in terms of water quality. Sci World J 18(2014):721357.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/721357 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ramos P (2018) Manabí todavía purifica agua con filtros coloniales. El Telégrafo, Santiago de Guayaquil. https://www.eltelegrafo.com.ec/noticias/cultura/1/intercultural-filtros-agua-coloniales-manabi. Accessed 9 Dec 2018Google Scholar
  70. Roman MC, Hurst CJ (1998) Assessment of the viral removal capability of the International Space Station water recovery and management system. Life Support Biosph Sci 5:31–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Ruckart PZ, Ettinger AS, Hanna-Attisha M et al (2019) The flint water crisis: a coordinated public health emergency response and recovery initiative. J Public Health Manag Pract 25(Suppl 1):S84–S90.  https://doi.org/10.1097/PHH.0000000000000871 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Safapour N, Metcalf RH (1999) Enhancement of solar water pasteurization with reflectors. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:859–861PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Saleh MA, Abdel-Rahman FH, Woodard BB et al (2008) Chemical, microbial and physical evaluation of commercial bottled waters in greater Houston area of Texas. J Environ Sci Health A 43:335–347.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10934520701795400 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sánchez-Martín J, Beltrán-Heredia J, Peres JA (2012) Improvement of the flocculation process in water treatment by using Moringa oleifera seeds extract. Braz J Chem Eng 29(03):495–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Skinner B, Shaw R (2019a) Technical brief 56: Buried and semi-submerged water tanks. Water, Engineering and Development Centre, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, pp 93–96. https://www.lboro.ac.uk/research/wedc/resources/pubs/guides/ Accessed 12 Jan 2019
  76. Skinner B, Shaw R (2019b) Technical brief 58: Household water treatment 1. Water, Engineering and Development Centre, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, pp 93–96. https://www.lboro.ac.uk/research/wedc/resources/pubs/guides/ Accessed 12 Jan 2019
  77. Skinner B, Shaw R (2019c) Technical brief 59: Household water treatment 2. Water, Engineering and Development Centre, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, pp 105–108. https://www.lboro.ac.uk/research/wedc/resources/pubs/guides/ Accessed 12 Jan 2019
  78. State of Queensland (Queensland Health) (2015) Water carriers: a guide for local government on general food safety and hygiene requirements. State of Queensland, BrisbaneGoogle Scholar
  79. Sule IO, Agbabiaka TO, Saliu BK et al (2014) Comparative bacteriological assessment of input and output water from tanker trucks. Ilorin J Sci 1(1):171–178Google Scholar
  80. Tellen V, Nkeng G, Dentel S (2010) Improved filtration technology for pathogen reduction in rural water supplies. Water 2(2):285–306.  https://doi.org/10.3390/w2020285 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (2018) Water supply division and regional areas public water system water hauler guidance. State of Texas, Dallas. https://www.tceq.texas.gov/assets/public/permitting/watersupply/pdw/Water%20Hauler%20Guidance.pdf. Accessed 1 Dec 2018
  82. Totaro M, Casini B, Valentini P et al (2018) Assessing natural mineral water microbiology quality in the absence of cultivable pathogen bacteria. J Water Health 16(3):425–434.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2018.183 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Tunggolou J, Payus C (2017) Application of Moringa oleifera plant as water purifier for drinking water purposes. J Environ Sci Technol 10(5):268–275.  https://doi.org/10.3923/jest.2017.268.275 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. United Nations Development Programme (2007) Case study Procter & Gamble: providing safe drinking water to the poor. United Nations Development Programme, New York. http://growinginclusivemarkets.org/media/cases/Developing%20Countries_P&G_2008.pdf. Accessed 10 Dec 2018
  85. United States Agency for International Development, National Demonstration Water Project, Institute for Rural Water, National Environmental Health Association (1982) Water for the world: technical notes: human resources, rural water supply. United States Agency for International Development, Washington. https://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/201-7288.pdf
  86. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2017) Emergency disinfection of drinking water. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington. https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/emergency-disinfection-drinking-water. Accessed 3 Dec 2018
  87. United States Government Publishing Office (2018) Processing and bottling of bottled drinking water. Title 21 chapter I subchapter B Part 129. In: Electronic code of federal regulations, United States Government, Washington. https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=0c417253f5a12d9cc7d0d83a94655ab7&mc=true&node=pt21.2.129&rgn=div5. Accessed 1 Dec 2018
  88. van der Laan H, van Halem D, Smeets PWMH et al (2014) Bacteria and virus removal effectiveness of ceramic pot filters with different silver applications in a long term experiment. Water Res 51:47–54.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2013.11.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. van Halem D, Heijman SGJ, Soppe AIA et al (2007) Ceramic silver-impregnated pot filters for household drinking water treatment in developing countries: material characterization and performance study. Water Sci Technol Water Supply 7(5-6):9–17.  https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2007.142 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. World Health Organization (2011a) Evaluating household water treatment options: health-based targets and microbiological performance specifications. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  91. World Health Organization (2011b) Safe drinking-water from desalination WHO/HSE/WSH/11.03. World Health Organization, Geneva. https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/2011/desalination_guidance_en.pdf. Accessed 14 Jan 2019
  92. World Health Organization (2015) Boil water technical brief WHO/FWC/WSH/15.02. World Health Organization, Geneva. http://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/155821. Accessed 5 Dec 2018
  93. World Health Organization (2017) Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 4th edn, incorporating the 1st addendum. World Health Organization, Geneva. https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/drinking-water-quality-guidelines-4-including-1st-addendum/en/. Accessed 13 Jan 2019
  94. World Health Organization (2018a) Silver as a drinking-water disinfectant. World Health Organization, Geneva. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/silver-02032018.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 5 Dec 2018
  95. World Health Organization (2018b) Fact sheet on drinking water. World Health Organization, Geneva. https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/drinking-water. Accessed 13 Jan 2019
  96. Wrigley T (2007) Microbial counts and pesticide concentrations in drinking water after alum flocculation of channel feed water at the household level, in Vinh Long Province, Vietnam. J Water Health 5(1):171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Yang Y-A, Chong A, Song J (2018) Why is eradicating typhoid fever so challenging: implications for vaccine and therapeutic design. Vaccines 6:45.  https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines6030045 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Yari AR, Mohammadi MJ, Geravandi S et al (2018) Assessment of microbial quality of household water output from desalination systems by the heterotrophic plate count method. J Water Health 16(6):930–937.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2018.082 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Zahran S, McElmurry SP, Sadler RC (2017) Four phases of the flint water crisis: evidence from blood lead levels in children. Environ Res 157:160–172.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.05.028 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Zereffa EA, Bekalo TB (2017) Clay ceramic filter for water treatment. Mater Sci Appl Chem 34:69–74.  https://doi.org/10.1515/msac-2017-0011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christon J. Hurst
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.1814 Woodpine Lane, CincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Universidad del ValleCaliColombia

Personalised recommendations