Inlet Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

  • Atooshe Rohani
Part of the Clinical Cases in Cardiology book series (CCC)


Ventricular septal defect (VSD) has been categorized to four subtypes: perimembranous, muscular, outlet and inlet; this is a case of inlet VSD. Clinical presentation and natural history of VSD depend on the degree of shunt. If shunt is significant, it can lead to pulmonary vascular disease, enlarged left heart and even Eisenmenger syndrome. A 56-year-old patient presented with shortness of breath and orthopnea found to have large size inlet type VSD.


Ventricular septal defect Eisenmenger syndrome TTE 

Supplementary material

Movie 48.1

Inlet, apical four chamber view (AVI 13153 kb)


  1. 1.
    Gabriels C, Backer JD, Pasquet A, Paelinck BP, Morissens M, Helsen F, et al. Long-term outcome of patients with perimembranous ventricular septal defect: results from the Belgian registry on adult congenital heart disease. Cardiology. 2016;136(3):147–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Baumgartner H, Bonhoeffer P, De Groot N, Haan F, Deanfield J, Galie N, et al. ESC guidelines for the management of grown-up congenital heart disease. Eur Heart J. 2010;31(23):2915–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Atooshe Rohani
    • 1
  1. 1.Northern Ontario School of MedicineThunder BayCanada

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