Magnetic Nanoparticles: A Unique Gene Delivery System in Plant Science
Plant genetic transformation is one of the key technologies for crop improvement in addition to emerging approaches for producing recombinant proteins in plants. Efficient genetic transformation in plants remains a challenge due to the cell wall, a barrier to exogenous biomolecule delivery. Until now, scientists usually transfer the interested genes into plants by Agrobacterium sp., application of some chemicals, and physical techniques (electroporation, microprojectile bombardment, etc.). Recently, nanoparticles including magnetic nanoparticles started to be the most promising materials for any biomolecule delivery including nucleic acids, owing to their ability to traverse plant cell walls without external force and highly tunable physicochemical properties for diverse cargo conjugation and broad host range applicability. In this chapter, we have discussed using nanotechnology through nucleic acid conjugated magnetic nanoparticles with their current status and future prospects in the development of gene transfer methods in plants. We have also discussed the mechanism of their entry and some recommendations for their future perspectives to improve efficacy, stability, and accuracy making it less time-consuming.
KeywordsMagnetic nanoparticles Magnetofection Gene delivery, plant protection
The first author would like to acknowledge Dr. Suzan Eid for her contentious support.
- Cordero T, Mohamed MA, López-Moya JJ, Daròs JA (2017) A recombinant potato virus y infectious clone tagged with the rosea1 visual marker (pvy-ros1) facilitates the analysis of viral infectivity and allows the production of large amounts of anthocyanins in plants. Front Microbiol 8:611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jia G et al (2005) Cytotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials: single-wall nanotube, multi-wall nanotube, and fullerene. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/es048729l, 23 Jan 2019
- McKnight TE, Melechko AV, Griffin GD, Guillorn MA, Merkulov VI, Serna F, Hensley DK, Doktycz MJ, Lowndes DH, Simpson ML (2003) Intracellular integration of synthetic nanostructures with viable cells for controlled biochemical manipulation. Nanotechnology 14: 551–556Google Scholar
- Mishra S, Singh A, Keswani C, Saxena A, Sarma BK, Singh HB (2015) Harnessing plant-microbe interactions for enhanced protection against phytopathogens. In: Plant microbes symbiosis: applied facets. Springer India, New Delhi, pp 111–125Google Scholar
- Pereira C, Pereira AM, Fernandes C, Rocha M, Mendes R, Fernández-García MP, Guedes A, Tavares PB, Grenèche JM, Araújo JP, Freire C (2012) Superparamagnetic MFe2O4 (M = Fe, Co, Mn) nanoparticles: tuning the particle size and magnetic properties through a novel one-step coprecipitation route. Chem Mater 24(8):1496–1504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- WHO (2014) State of the art on the initiatives and activities relevant to risk assessment and risk management of nanotechnologies in the food and agriculture sectors. WHO. https://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/nanotechnology-2013/en/, 24 Jan 2019