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The Role of Precision Medicine in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Patients with Rare Cancers

  • Michael J. DemeureEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 178)

Abstract

Rare cancers pose unique challenges for patients and their physicians arising from a lack of information regarding the best therapeutic options. Very often, a lack of clinical trial data leads physicians to choose treatments based on small case series or case reports. Precision medicine based on genomic analysis of tumors may allow for selection of better treatments with greater efficacy and less toxicity. Physicians are increasingly using genetics to identify patients at high risk for certain cancers to allow for early detection or prophylactic interventions. Genomics can be used to inform prognosis and more accurately establish a diagnosis. Genomic analysis may also expose therapeutic targets for which drugs are currently available and approved for use in other cancers. Notable successes in the treatment of previously refractory cancers have resulted. New more advanced sequencing technologies, tools for interpretation, and an increasing array of targeted drugs offer additional hope, but challenges remain.

Keywords

Rare cancers Kinase inhibitors Basket trials Umbrella trials Genomic analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author wishes to express his gratitude to Sourat Darabi, Ph.D. for her editorial review and assistance with creation of tables.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hoag Family Cancer InstituteNewport BeachUSA
  2. 2.Translational Genomics Research InstitutePhoenixUSA

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