Advertisement

The Way Forward

  • Vani Kant BorooahEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, Borooah pulls together the various threads of the preceding chapters. It begins by observing that many social groups in India—in particular, the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes, and Muslims—are excluded from the mainstream of life and are underrepresented in many areas of public affairs. It then proceeds to expand on the concept of social exclusion and its relation to deprivation. In particular, it asks whether exclusion should be viewed in its own right as constituting deprivation or is exclusion to be deprecated only if it is instrumental in causing deprivation. In this chapter, Borooah argues that an important effect of social exclusion is that it erodes self-confidence and, thereby, impairs the life chances of persons belonging to excluded groups. An important aspect of public policy is, therefore, to build the confidence of such persons. But how is this to be done? The chapter argues that affirmative action policies are the wrong way to achieve this.

References

  1. Akerlof, G. A., & Shiller, R. J. (2009). Animal Spirits. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Borooah, V. K., & Iyer, S. (2005). Vidya, Veda, and Varna: The Influence of Religion and Caste on Education in Rural India. Journal of Development Studies, 41, 1369–1404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borooah, V. K., Dubey, A., & Iyer, S. (2007). The Effectiveness of Jobs Reservation: Caste, Religion, and Economic Status in India. Development & Change, 38, 423–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. DFID. (2005). Reducing Poverty by Tackling Social Exclusion (DFID Policy Paper). London: Department for International Development.Google Scholar
  5. Feldman, N. (2018). Justifying Diversity. The New York Review of Books, 65, 27–29.Google Scholar
  6. Kashyap, S. G. (2016, October 24). Demand for Tribal Status Becomes Louder in Assam. Indian Express. http://indianexpress.com/article/explained/demand-for-tribal-status-assam-3099402/. Accessed 12 Dec 2016.
  7. Lenoir, R. (1974). Les Exclus: Un Francais sur Dix. Paris: Editions du Seuil.Google Scholar
  8. OECD. (2017). OECD Economic Surveys: India. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.Google Scholar
  9. Øyen, E. (1997). The Contradictory Concepts of Social Exclusion and Social Inclusion. In C. Gore & J. B. Figueiredo (Eds.), Social Exclusion and Anti-Poverty Policy. Geneva: International Institute of Labour Studies.Google Scholar
  10. Sachar Committee Report. (2006). The Social and Economic Status of the Muslim Community in India. New Delhi: Government of India (Cabinet Secretariat).Google Scholar
  11. Sainath, P. (2002). Dalits in India 2000: The Scheduled Castes More than a Half Century After Independence. Asia Source. www.asiasource.org/asip/dalits.cfm
  12. Sen, A. K. (2000). Social Exclusion: Concept, Application, and Scrutiny (Social Development Papers No. 1, Office of Economic and Social Development). Manila: Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
  13. Silver, H. (1995). Reconceptualizing Social Disadvantage: Three Paradigms of Social Exclusion. In G. Rodgers, C. Gore, & J. B. Figueiredo (Eds.), Social Exclusion: Rhetoric, Reality, Responses. Geneva: International Institute for Labour Studies.Google Scholar
  14. Smith, A. (1776). An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Republished, Ed., R. H. Campbell and A. S. Skinner. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976).Google Scholar
  15. Solow, R. M. (1956). A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 70, 65–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Stephens, B. (2018, October 19). The Curse of Affirmative Action. New York Times.Google Scholar
  17. Thorat, S. (2009). Dalits in India: Search for a Common Destiny. New Delhi: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Vishnu, U. (2015, August 6). They Get Leg-Up at JEE but Hard Landing on Campus. Indian Express.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Economics & PoliticsUniversity of UlsterBelfastUK

Personalised recommendations