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Mutual Help and Peer Support Models for Opioid Use Disorder Recovery

  • John F. KellyEmail author
  • Alexandra W. Abry
  • Nilofar Fallah-Sohy
Chapter
Part of the Current Clinical Psychiatry book series (CCPSY)

Abstract

The onset and offset of opioid use disorders involve the dynamic interplay of biological, psychological, and social processes. Most people are first exposed to substances via social mechanisms, and within this social context, opioid use is either supported and reinforced or sanctioned and prohibited. Of note, while the social factors play a powerful role in modeling and reinforcing initial opioid use, they can also play a powerful role in attracting and engaging individuals with opioid use disorder into circles of recovery that can support and sustain long-term remission. Freely standing community mutual-help organizations, such as Narcotics Anonymous and SMART Recovery, as well as more professionally formalized peer models of “Recovery Coaching” have grown and flourished in the United States in recent decades to address the increasing burden of disease, disability, and premature mortality relating to opioid use disorder, but the science on their effectiveness has lagged behind that in other clinical areas. This chapter describes the origin and growth of peer support models for opioid use disorder and reviews the research in these areas. The policy implications of these findings are discussed regarding the clinical and public health utility of peer support models in addressing opioid use disorders.

Keywords

Opioid use disorder Opioid addiction Mutual aid Peer support Peer models Recovery Coaching Addiction Recovery 

Abbreviation

AA

Alcoholics Anonymous

AUD

Alcohol use disorder

BMT

Buprenorphine maintenance treatment

CA

Cocaine Anonymous

CARC

Certified Addiction Recovery Coach

CASAC

Credentialed Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Counselor

CBT

Cognitive behavioral therapy

CCAR

Connecticut Community for Addiction Recovery

CMA TreatmentAdvocate

Certified Medication Assisted Treatment Advocate

EDs

Emergency departments

EMRs

Electronic medical records

GDC

Group drug counseling

IGC

Individual group counseling

MARS Project

Medication Assisted Recovery Services Project

MAT

Medication-assisted treatment

MHOs

Mutual-help organizations

MMT

Methadone maintenance treatment

NA

Narcotics Anonymous

NAMA Recovery

The National Alliance for Medication-Assisted Recovery

NIDA

National Institute of Drug Abuse

OASAS

Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services

ODC

Opioid drug counseling

OUD

Opioid use disorder

RCT

Randomized controlled trial

REBT

Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy

RR

Rational Recovery

SAMHSA

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

SMM

Standard medical management

SOS

Secular Organization for Sobriety or Save Our Selves

SUD

Substance use disorder

TAU

Treatment as usual

TSF

Twelve-Step Facilitation

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • John F. Kelly
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Alexandra W. Abry
    • 4
  • Nilofar Fallah-Sohy
    • 4
  1. 1.Recovery Research Institute Massachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Center for Addiction Medicine Massachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  3. 3.Elizabeth R. Spallin Professor of Psychiatry in Addiction Medicine, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

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