Advertisement

Clinical Approaches to Adult Cancer Pain

  • Daniel Humberto Pozza
  • Sara Gil-Mata
  • Andreia Fontoura Oliveira
  • Alice Turner
  • Ramon Andrade De MelloEmail author
  • Newton Barros
Chapter

Abstract

The disease course of cancer presents several physical manifestations, such as fatigue, nausea, vomiting or anorexia. However, the most feared symptom, with the greatest impact on quality of life is, undoubtedly, pain. Thus, pain relief is of paramount importance in any stage of the disease [van den Beuken-van Everdingen MH, de Rijke JM, Kessels AG, Schouten HC, van Kleef M, Patijn J. Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol/ESMO 18:1437–1449, 2007].

Keywords

Pain Opioid Palliative care 

References

  1. 1.
    van den Beuken-van Everdingen MH, de Rijke JM, Kessels AG, Schouten HC, van Kleef M, Patijn J (2007) Prevalence of pain in patients with cancer: a systematic review of the past 40 years. Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol/ESMO 18:1437–1449Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Clark D (1999) ‘Total pain’, disciplinary power and the body in the work of Cicely Saunders, 1958-1967. Soc Sci Med 49:727–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Foley KM (2011) How well is cancer pain treated? Palliat Med 25:398–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Deandrea S, Montanari M, Moja L, Apolone G (2008) Prevalence of undertreatment in cancer pain. A review of published literature. Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol/ESMO 19:1985–1991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fairchild A (2010) Under-treatment of cancer pain. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care 4:11–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Twycross RG (2002) The challenge of palliative care. Int J Clin Oncol 7:271–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schmidt BL, Hamamoto DT, Simone DA, Wilcox GL (2010) Mechanism of cancer pain. Mol Interv 10:164–178CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schmidt BL (2014) The neurobiology of Cancer pain. Neuroscientist 20:546–562CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mantyh PW, Clohisy DR, Koltzenburg M, Hunt SP (2002) Molecular mechanisms of cancer pain. Nat Rev Cancer 2:201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mantyh PW (2006) Cancer pain and its impact on diagnosis, survival and quality of life. Nat Rev Neurosci 7:797–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cleeland CS, Gonin R, Hatfield AK et al (1994) Pain and its treatment in outpatients with metastatic cancer. N Engl J Med 330:592–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Swarm RA, Abernethy AP, Anghelescu DL, Benedetti C, Cleeland C, deLeon-Casasola OA et al (2014) Adult cancer pain. NCCN guidelines version 2. 2014. New York Medical College, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Herr K, Titler MG, Schilling ML et al (2004) Evidence-based assessment of acute pain in older adults: current nursing practices and perceived barriers. Clin J Pain 20:331–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    No authors listed (1996) Practice guidelines for cancer pain management. A report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Pain Management, Cancer Pain Section. Anesthesiology 84:1243–1257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ripamonti CI, Bandieri E, Roila F (2011) Management of cancer pain: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines. Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol/ESMO 22(Suppl 6):vi69–vi77Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ware LJ, Epps CD, Herr K, Packard A (2006) Evaluation of the revised faces pain scale, verbal descriptor scale, numeric rating scale, and Iowa pain thermometer in older minority adults. Pain Manag Nurs Off J Am Soc Pain Manag Nurs 7:117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Serlin RC, Mendoza TR, Nakamura Y, Edwards KR, Cleeland CS (1995) When is cancer pain mild, moderate or severe? Grading pain severity by its interference with function. Pain 61:277–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hicks CL, von Baeyer CL, Spafford PA, van Korlaar I, Goodenough B (2001) The faces pain scale-revised: toward a common metric in pediatric pain measurement. Pain 93:173–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    LeBaron VT, Blonquist TM, Hong F, Halpenny B, Berry DL (2015) Screening for pain in the ambulatory cancer setting: is 0–10 enough? J Oncol Pract 11:435–441CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Holen JC, Lydersen S, Klepstad P, Loge JH, Kaasa S (2008) The Brief Pain Inventory: pain’s interference with functions is different in cancer pain compared with noncancer chronic pain. Clin J Pain 24:219–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cleeland CS, Ryan KM (1994) Pain assessment: global use of the Brief Pain Inventory. Ann Acad Med Singap 23:129–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cleeland CS, Nakamura Y, Mendoza TR, Edwards KR, Douglas J, Serlin RC (1996) Dimensions of the impact of cancer pain in a four country sample: new information from multidimensional scaling. Pain 67:267–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Picot T, Hamid B (2010) Decision-making in the cancer pain setting: beyond the WHO ladder. Tech Reg Anesthes Pain Manag 14:19–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Raphael J, Ahmedzai S, Hester J et al (2010) Cancer pain: part 1: pathophysiology; oncological, pharmacological, and psychological treatments: a perspective from the British Pain Society endorsed by the UK Association of Palliative Medicine and the Royal College of General Practitioners. Pain Med 11:742–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Organization WH (1990) Cancer pain relief and paliative care. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Meldrum M (2005) The ladder and the clock: cancer pain and public policy at the end of the twentieth century. J Pain Symptom Manag 29:41–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Committee JF (2007) British National Formulary, 55th edn. British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Network. SIG (2008) Control of pain in adults with cancer. A national clinical guideline. SIGN, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mercadante SL, Berchovich M, Casuccio A, Fulfaro F, Mangione S (2007) A prospective randomized study of corticosteroids as adjuvant drugs to opioids in advanced cancer patients. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 24:13–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Administration USFaD (2013) Transmucosal immediate release of fentanyl (TIRF) risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS). U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver SpringGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Administratition USFaD (2013) Extended release (ER) and long-acting (LA) opioid analgesics risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS). U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver SpringGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cherny NI (2004) The pharmacologic management of cancer pain. Oncology (Williston Park, NY) 18:1499–1515. discussion 516, 520-1, 522, 524Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mercadante S (2012) Pharmacotherapy for breakthrough cancer pain. Drugs 72:181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zeppetella G, Davies AN (2013) Opioids for the management of breakthrough pain in cancer patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 10:Cd004311Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bruera E, Kim HN (2003) Cancer pain. JAMA 290:2476–2479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stevens RA, Ghazi SM (2000) Routes of opioid analgesic therapy in the management of cancer pain. Cancer Control J Moffitt Cancer Center 7:132–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Harris JT, Suresh Kumar K, Rajagopal MR (2003) Intravenous morphine for rapid control of severe cancer pain. Palliat Med 17:248–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Meert TF, Vermeirsch HA (2005) A preclinical comparison between different opioids: antinociceptive versus adverse effects. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 80:309–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Holdcroft A, Power I (2003) Recent developments: Management of pain. BMJ (Clinical research ed) 326:635–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wiffen PJ, Wee B, Moore RA (2016) Oral morphine for cancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD003868PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kalso E, Vainio A (1990) Morphine and oxycodone hydrochloride in the management of cancer pain. Clin Pharmacol Ther 47:639–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tiseo PJ, Thaler HT, Lapin J, Inturrisi CE, Portenoy RK, Foley KM (1995) Morphine-6-glucuronide concentrations and opioid-related side effects: a survey in cancer patients. Pain 61:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Portenoy RK, Foley KM, Stulman J et al (1991) Plasma morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide during chronic morphine therapy for cancer pain: plasma profiles, steady-state concentrations and the consequences of renal failure. Pain 47:13–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Trescot AM, Datta S, Lee M, Hansen H (2008) Opioid pharmacology. Pain Physician 11:S133–S153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hanks GW, Conno F, Cherny N et al (2001) Morphine and alternative opioids in cancer pain: the EAPC recommendations. Br J Cancer 84:587–593CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Murray A, Hagen NA (2005) Hydromorphone. J Pain Symptom Manag 29:S57–S66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bao YJ, Hou W, Kong XY et al (2016) Hydromorphone for cancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 10:CD011108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Thwaites D, McCann S, Broderick P (2004) Hydromorphone neuroexcitation. J Palliat Med 7:545–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wright AW, Mather LE, Smith MT (2001) Hydromorphone-3-glucuronide: a more potent neuro-excitant than its structural analogue, morphine-3-glucuronide. Life Sci 69:409–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gabrail NY, Dvergsten C, Ahdieh H (2004) Establishing the dosage equivalency of oxymorphone extended release and oxycodone controlled release in patients with cancer pain: a randomized controlled study. Curr Med Res Opin 20:911–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Schmidt-Hansen M, Bennett MI, Arnold S, Bromham N, Hilgart JS (2017) Oxycodone for cancer-related pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 8:CD003870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Trescot AM, Datta S, Lee M, Hansen H (2008) Opioid pharmacology. Pain Physician 11(2 Suppl):S133–S153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Davis MP, Homsi J (2001) The importance of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP2D6 in palliative medicine. Support Care Cancer 9:442–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Nicholson AB (2004) Methadone for cancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 17:Cd003971Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Nicholson AB, Watson GR, Derry S, Wiffen PJ (2017) Methadone for cancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD003971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Salpeter SR, Buckley JS, Bruera E (2013) The use of very-low-dose methadone for palliative pain control and the prevention of opioid hyperalgesia. J Palliat Med 16:616–622CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Krantz MJ, Lewkowiez L, Hays H, Woodroffe MA, Robertson AD, Mehler PS (2002) Torsade de pointes associated with very-high-dose methadone. Ann Intern Med 137:501–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kornick CA, Kilborn MJ, Santiago-Palma J et al (2003) QTc interval prolongation associated with intravenous methadone. Pain 105:499–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Krantz MJ, Kutinsky IB, Robertson AD, Mehler PS (2003) Dose-related effects of methadone on QT prolongation in a series of patients with torsade de pointes. Pharmacotherapy 23:802–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    McNulty JP (2007) Can levorphanol be used like methadone for intractable refractory pain? J Palliat Med 10:293–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Atkinson TJ, Fudin J, Pandula A, Mirza M (2013) Medication pain management in the elderly: unique and underutilized analgesic treatment options. Clin Ther 35:1669–1689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rowbotham MC, Twilling L, Davies PS, Reisner L, Taylor K, Mohr D (2003) Oral opioid therapy for chronic peripheral and central neuropathic pain. N Engl J Med 348:1223–1232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Grond S, Sablotzki A (2004) Clinical pharmacology of tramadol. Clin Pharmacokinet 43:879–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Grond S, Radbruch L, Meuser T, Loick G, Sabatowski R, Lehmann KA (1999) High-dose tramadol in comparison to low-dose morphine for cancer pain relief. J Pain Symptom Manag 18:174–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rodriguez RF, Bravo LE, Castro F et al (2007) Incidence of weak opioids adverse events in the management of cancer pain: a double-blind comparative trial. J Palliat Med 10:56–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mercadante S, Porzio G, Ferrera P et al (2012) Tapentadol in cancer pain management: a prospective open-label study. Curr Med Res Opin 28:1775–1779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Naing C, Aung K, Racloz V, Yeoh PN (2013) Safety and efficacy of transdermal buprenorphine for the relief of cancer pain. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 139:1963–1970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pergolizzi JV Jr, Mercadante S, Echaburu AV et al (2009) The role of transdermal buprenorphine in the treatment of cancer pain: an expert panel consensus. Curr Med Res Opin 25:1517–1528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Deandrea S, Corli O, Moschetti I, Apolone G (2009) Managing severe cancer pain: the role of transdermal buprenorphine: a systematic review. Ther Clin Risk Manag 5:707–718PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mercadante S, Bruera E (2006) Opioid switching: a systematic and critical review. Cancer Treat Rev 32:304–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Society AP (2003) Principles of analgesic use in the treatment of acute pain and cancer pain. APS, GlenviewGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    de Courcy JG (2011) Interventional techniques for cancer pain management. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol (Great Britain)) 23:407–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Anderson KO, Getto CJ, Mendoza TR et al (2003) Fatigue and sleep disturbance in patients with cancer, patients with clinical depression, and community-dwelling adults. J Pain Symptom Manag 25:307–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Portenoy RK, Thaler HT, Kornblith AB et al (1994) Symptom prevalence, characteristics and distress in a cancer population. Qual Life Res Int J Qual Life Asp Treat Care Rehab 3:183–189Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Recommandations pour la pratique clinique 2005: standards, Options et Recommandations pour la prise en charge des douleurs provoquées lors des ponctions lombaires, osseuses et sanguines chez l’adulte atteint de cancer 2005:92Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    de Rond M, de Wit R, van Dam F et al (1999) Daily pain assessment: value for nurses and patients. J Adv Nurs 29:436–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Allard P, Maunsell E, Labbe J, Dorval M (2001) Educational interventions to improve cancer pain control: a systematic review. J Palliat Med 4:191–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Benyamin R, Trescot AM, Datta S et al (2008) Opioid complications and side effects. Pain Physician 11:S105–S120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wiffen PJ, Wee B, Derry S, Bell RF, Moore RA (2017) Opioids for cancer pain – an overview of Cochrane reviews. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 7:CD012592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Swarm R, Abernethy AP, Anghelescu DL et al (2010) Adult cancer pain. J Natl Compr Cancer Netw 8:1046–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Caraceni A, Hanks G, Kaasa S et al (2012) Use of opioid analgesics in the treatment of cancer pain: evidence-based recommendations from the EAPC. Lancet Oncol 13:e58–e68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Auret K, Schug SA (2013) Pain management for the cancer patient – current practice and future developments. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 27:545–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Reich A, Szepietowski JC (2010) Opioid-induced pruritus: an update. Clin Exp Dermatol 35:2–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ricardo Buenaventura M, Rajive Adlaka M, Nalini SM (2008) Opioid complications and side effects. Pain Physician 11:S105–SS20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Zutler M, Holty JE (2011) Opioids, sleep, and sleep-disordered breathing. Curr Pharm Des 17:1443–1449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Verhamme KM, Sturkenboom MC, Stricker BH, Bosch R (2008) Drug-induced urinary retention: incidence, management and prevention. Drug Saf Int J Med Toxicol Drug Exp 31:373–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    De Maddalena C, Bellini M, Berra M, Meriggiola MC, Aloisi AM (2012) Opioid-induced hypogonadism: why and how to treat it. Pain Physician 15:ES145–ES156Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lee M, Silverman SM, Hansen H, Patel VB, Manchikanti L (2011) A comprehensive review of opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Pain Physician 14:145–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    DuPen A, Shen D, Ersek M (2007) Mechanisms of opioid-induced tolerance and hyperalgesia. Pain Manag Nurs 8:113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Centeno C, Sanz Á, Bruera E (2004) Delirium in advanced cancer patients. Palliat Med 18:184–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gaudreau JD, Gagnon P, Roy MA, Harel F, Tremblay A (2007) Opioid medications and longitudinal risk of delirium in hospitalized cancer patients. Cancer 109:2365–2373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Boland J, Boland E, Brooks D (2013) Importance of the correct diagnosis of opioid-induced respiratory depression in adult cancer patients and titration of naloxone. Clin Med 13:149–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Dahan A, Aarts L, Smith TW (2010) Incidence, reversal, and prevention of opioid-induced respiratory depression. Anesthesiology 112:226–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Williams JT, Ingram SL, Henderson G et al (2013) Regulation of μ-opioid receptors: desensitization, phosphorylation, internalization, and tolerance. Pharmacol Rev 65:223–254CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Webster LR, Fine PG (2012) Review and critique of opioid rotation practices and associated risks of toxicity. Pain Med 13:562–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Copenhaver DJ, Karvelas NB, Fishman SM (2017) Risk Management for Opioid Prescribing in the treatment of patients with pain from Cancer or terminal illness: inadvertent oversight or taboo? Anesth Analg 125:1610–1615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Food, Administration D. Extended Release (ER) and Long-Acting (LA) Opioid Analgesics Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) (2012). 2013Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    McNicol E, Strassels S, Goudas L, Lau J, Carr DB (2005) NSAIDS or paracetamol, alone or combined with opioids, for cancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1:CD005180Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wiffen PJ, Derry S, Moore RA et al (2017) Oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 7:CD012637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Derry S, Wiffen PJ, Moore RA et al (2017) Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for cancer pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 7:CD012638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Vardy J, Agar M (2014) Nonopioid drugs in the treatment of cancer pain. J Clin Oncol 32(16):1677–1690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Middlemiss T, Laird BJA, Fallon MT (2011) Mechanisms of cancer-induced bone pain. Clin Oncol 23:387–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Mantyh P (2013) Bone cancer pain: causes, consequences, and therapeutic opportunities. PAIN® 154(Supplement 1):S54–S62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Chow E, Zeng L, Salvo N, Dennis K, Tsao M, Lutz S (2012) Update on the systematic review of palliative radiotherapy trials for bone metastases. Clin Oncol 24:112–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Chow E, Harris K, Fan G, Tsao M, Sze WM (2007) Palliative radiotherapy trials for bone metastases: a systematic review. J Clin Oncol 25:1423–1436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Body JJ, Diel IJ, Lichinitzer M et al (2004) Oral ibandronate reduces the risk of skeletal complications in breast cancer patients with metastatic bone disease: results from two randomised, placebo-controlled phase III studies. Br J Cancer 90:1133–1137CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Body JJ, Diel IJ, Bell R et al (2004) Oral ibandronate improves bone pain and preserves quality of life in patients with skeletal metastases due to breast cancer. Pain 111:306–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Cleeland CS, Body JJ, Stopeck A et al (2013) Pain outcomes in patients with advanced breast cancer and bone metastases: results from a randomized, double-blind study of denosumab and zoledronic acid. Cancer 119:832–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wardley A, Davidson N, Barrett-Lee P et al (2005) Zoledronic acid significantly improves pain scores and quality of life in breast cancer patients with bone metastases: a randomised, crossover study of community vs hospital bisphosphonate administration. Br J Cancer 92:1869–1876CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Vadhan-Raj S, von Moos R, Fallowfield LJ et al (2012) Clinical benefit in patients with metastatic bone disease: results of a phase 3 study of denosumab versus zoledronic acid. Ann Oncol: Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol/ESMO 23:3045–3051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Sabino MAC, Ghilardi JR, Jongen JL et al (2002) Simultaneous reduction in cancer pain, bone destruction, and tumor growth by selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2. Cancer Res 62:7343–7349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lema MJ, Foley KM, Hausheer FH (2010) Types and epidemiology of cancer-related neuropathic pain: the intersection of Cancer pain and neuropathic pain. Oncologist 15:3–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Rayment C, Hjermstad MJ, Aass N et al (2013) Neuropathic cancer pain: prevalence, severity, analgesics and impact from the European palliative care research collaborative–computerised symptom assessment study. Palliat Med 27:714–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Grond S, Radbruch L, Meuser T, Sabatowski R, Loick G, Lehmann KA (1999) Assessment and treatment of neuropathic cancer pain following WHO guidelines. Pain 79:15–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Fallon MT (2013) Neuropathic pain in cancer. Br J Anaesth 111:105–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Arning K, Baron R (2009) Evaluation of symptom heterogeneity in neuropathic pain using assessments of sensory functions. Neurotherapeutics 6:738–748CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Baron R, Binder A, Wasner G (2010) Neuropathic pain: diagnosis, pathophysiological mechanisms, and treatment. Lancet Neurol 9:807–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Scholz J, Woolf CJ (2007) The neuropathic pain triad: neurons, immune cells and glia. Nat Neurosci 10:1361–1368CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Moore KA, Kohno T, Karchewski LA, Scholz J, Baba H, Woolf CJ (2002) Partial peripheral nerve injury promotes a selective loss of GABAergic inhibition in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord. J Neurosci 22:6724–6731CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Raja SN, Treede R-D (2012) Testing the link between sympathetic efferent and sensory afferent fibers in neuropathic pain. Anesthesiology 117:173–177CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Calvo M, Dawes JM, Bennett DLH (2012) The role of the immune system in the generation of neuropathic pain. Lancet Neurol 11:629–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Vadalouca A, Raptis E, Moka E, Zis P, Sykioti P, Siafaka I (2012) Pharmacological treatment of neuropathic cancer pain: a comprehensive review of the current literature. Pain Pract 12:219–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Sills GJ (2006) The mechanisms of action of gabapentin and pregabalin. Curr Opin Pharmacol 6:108–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Taylor CP (2009) Mechanisms of analgesia by gabapentin and pregabalin – calcium channel α2-δ [Cavα2-δ] ligands. Pain 142:13–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Bar Ad V, Weinstein G, Dutta PR et al (2010) Gabapentin for the treatment of pain syndrome related to radiation-induced mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Cancer 116:4206–4213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Saarto T, Wiffen PJ (2007) Antidepressants for neuropathic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev:CD005454Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Sindrup SH, Otto M, Finnerup NB, Jensen TS (2005) Antidepressants in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 96:399–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Sideras K, Ingle JN, Ames MM et al (2010) Coprescription of tamoxifen and medications that inhibit CYP2D6. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 28:2768–2776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Raja SN, Haythornthwaite JA, Pappagallo M et al (2002) Opioids versus antidepressants in postherpetic neuralgia: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 59:1015–1021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Ripamonti CI, Easson AM, Gerdes H (2008) Management of malignant bowel obstruction. Eur J Cancer 44:1105–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Ripamonti CI, Santini D, Maranzano E, Berti M, Roila F, Group obotEGW (2012) Management of cancer pain: ESMO clinical practice guidelines. Ann Oncol 23:vii139–vvii54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    de Courcy JG (2011) Interventional techniques for Cancer pain management. Clin Oncol 23:407–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Myers DP, Lema MJ, De Leon-Casasola OA, Bacon DR (1993) Interpleural analgesia for the treatment of severe cancer pain in terminally ill patients. J Pain Symptom Manag 8:505–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Amesbury B, O’Riordan J, Dolin S (1999) The use of interpleural analgesia using bupivacaine for pain relief in advanced cancer. Palliat Med 13:153–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Vorenkamp KE, Kohan LR (2013) Intrapleural catheters. Comprehensive treatment of chronic pain by medical, interventional, and integrative approaches. Springer, New York, pp 393–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Chambers W (2008) Nerve blocks in palliative care. Br J Anaesth 101:95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Arcidiacono PG, Calori G, Carrara S, McNicol ED, Testoni PA (2011) Celiac plexus block for pancreatic cancer pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 16(3):CD007519Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Zhong W, Yu Z, Zeng JX et al (2014) Celiac plexus block for treatment of pain associated with pancreatic Cancer: a meta-analysis. Pain Pract 14:43–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Kambadakone A, Thabet A, Gervais DA, Mueller PR, Arellano RS (2011) CT-guided celiac plexus neurolysis: a review of anatomy, indications, technique, and tips for successful treatment. Radiographics 31:1599–1621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Davies DD (1993) Incidence of major complications of neurolytic coeliac plexus block. J R Soc Med 86:264–266PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Mishra S, Bhatnagar S, Gupta D, Thulkar S (2008) Anterior ultrasound-guided superior hypogastric plexus neurolysis in pelvic cancer pain. Anaesth Intensive Care 36:732–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Gamal G, Helaly M, Labib YM (2006) Superior hypogastric block: transdiscal versus classic posterior approach in pelvic cancer pain. Clin J Pain 22:544–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Nabil D, Eissa AA (2010) Evaluation of posteromedial transdiscal superior hypogastric block after failure of the classic approach. Clin J Pain 26:694–697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Mauck WD, Rho RH (2010) The role of neurolytic sympathetic blocks in treating cancer pain. Tech Reg Anesth Pain Manag 14:32–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Khosla A, Adeyefa O, Nasir S (2013) Successful treatment of radiation-induced proctitis pain by blockade of the ganglion impar in an elderly patient with prostate cancer: a case report. Pain Med 14:662–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    RABAH E, SOUYET H, AGUILERA C, ELZO JJ (2001) Neurolytic block of the ganglion impar (walther) in chronic radiation Proctitis. Analgesia 5:63–65Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Agarwal-Kozlowski K, Lorke DE, Habermann CR, Am Esch JS, Beck H (2009) CT-guided blocks and neuroablation of the ganglion impar (Walther) in perineal pain: anatomy, technique, safety, and efficacy. Clin J Pain 25:570–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Amr YM, Makharita MY (2014) Neurolytic sympathectomy in the management of cancer pain—time effect: a prospective, randomized multicenter study. J Pain Symptom Manag 48(5):944–956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Burton AW, Rajagopal A, Shah HN et al (2004) Epidural and intrathecal analgesia is effective in treating refractory cancer pain. Pain Med 5:239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Bell RF, Eccleston C, Kalso EA (2017) Ketamine as an adjuvant to opioids for cancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 6:CD003351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Sloan PA (2007) Neuraxial pain relief for intractable cancer pain. Curr Pain Headache Rep 11:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Smyth CE, Jarvis V, Poulin P (2014) Brief review: Neuraxial analgesia in refractory malignant pain. Can J Anesth/Journal canadien d’anesthésie 61:141–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Horlocker TT, Burton AW, Connis RT et al (2009) Practice guidelines for the prevention, detection, and management of respiratory depression associated with neuraxial opioid administration. Anesthesiology 110:218–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Deer TR, Smith HS, Burton AW et al (2011) Comprehensive consensus based guidelines on intrathecal drug delivery systems in the treatment of pain caused by cancer pain. Pain Physician 14:E283–E312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Papanastassiou ID, Filis AK, Gerochristou MA, Vrionis FD (2014) Controversial issues in Kyphoplasty and Vertebroplasty in malignant vertebral fractures. Cancer Control J Moffitt Cancer Center 21:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Humberto Pozza
    • 1
  • Sara Gil-Mata
    • 1
  • Andreia Fontoura Oliveira
    • 1
  • Alice Turner
    • 2
  • Ramon Andrade De Mello
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Newton Barros
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of BiomedicineMedical Research Centre of the Faculty of Medicine/Faculty of Nutrition of the University of PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.University of Otago ChristchurchChristchurchNew Zealand
  3. 3.Division of Medical OncologyFederal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP) & Hospital Israelita Albert EinsteinSão PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical Sciences and MedicineUniversity of AlgarveFaroPortugal
  5. 5.Institute of Preventive Medicine of Mãe de Deus HospitalPorto AlegreBrazil

Personalised recommendations