Advertisement

Asthenia

  • F. Koinis
  • I. Gioulbasanis
Chapter

Abstract

In the era of holistic care, management of patients with malignant diseases should also embrace the effort for palliation of symptoms hampering the physical, mental and social well-being of the patient.

Keywords

Asthenia Paliative care End of life 

References

  1. 1.
    Laird BJ, Scott AC, Colvin LA, McKeon AL, Murray GD, Fearon KC, Fallon MT (2011) Pain, depression, and fatigue as a symptom cluster in advanced cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage 42(1):1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2010.10.261CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Curt GA (2000) The impact of fatigue on patients with cancer: overview of FATIGUE 1 and 2. Oncologist 5(Suppl 2):9–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE).. Version 4.03. [Online] June 14, 2010. [Cited: March 14, 2015]. http://evs.nci.nih.gov/ftp1/CTCAE/CTCAE_4.03_2010-06-14_QuickReference_5x7.pdf
  4. 4.
    Piper BF, Cella D (2010) Cancer-related fatigue: definitions and clinical subtypes. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 8(8):958–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barsevick AM, Whitmer K, Walker L (2001) In their own words: using the common sense model to analyze patient descriptions of cancer-related fatigue. Oncol Nurs Forum 28(9):1363–1369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Forlenza MJ, Hall P, Lichtenstein P, Evengard B, Sullivan PF (2005) Epidemiology of cancer-related fatigue in the Swedish twin registry. Cancer 104(9):2022–2031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lawrence DP, Kupelnick B, Miller K, Devine D, Lau J (2004) Evidence report on the occurrence, assessment, and treatment of fatigue in cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 32:40–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Respini D, Jacobsen PB, Thors C, Tralongo P, Balducci L (2003) The prevalence and correlates of fatigue in older cancer patients. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 47(3):273–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stasi R, Abriani L, Beccaglia P, Terzoli E, Amadori S (2003) Cancer-related fatigue: evolving concepts in evaluation and treatment. Cancer 98(9):1786–1801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stone P, Hardy J, Broadley K, Tookman AJ, Kurowska A, A’Hern R (1999) Fatigue in advanced cancer: a prospective controlled cross-sectional study. Br J Cancer 79(9–10):1479–1486CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cella D, Davis K, Breitbart W, Curt G, and for the Fatigue Coalition (2001) Cancer-related fatigue: prevalence of proposed diagnostic criteria in a United States sample of cancer survivors. J Clin Oncol 19(14):3385–3391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Broeckel JA, Jacobsen PB, Horton J, Balducci L, Lyman GH (1998) Characteristics and correlates of fatigue after adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 16(5):1689–1696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bower JE, Ganz PA, Desmond KA, Rowland JH, Meyerowitz BE, Belin TR (2000) Fatigue in breast cancer survivors: occurrence, correlates, and impact on quality of life. J Clin Oncol 18(4):743–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Curt GA, Breitbart W, Cella D, Groopman JE, Horning SJ, Itri LM, Johnson DH, Miaskowski C, Scherr SL, Portenoy RK, Vogelzang NJ (2000) Impact of cancer-related fatigue on the lives of patients: new findings from the Fatigue Coalition. Oncologist 5(5):353–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    The Fatigue Coalition, Vogelzang NJ, Breitbart W, Cella D, Curt GA, Groopman JE, Horning SJ, Itri LM, Johnson DH, Scherr SL, Portenoy RK (1997) Patient, caregiver, and oncologist perceptions of cancer-related fatigue: results of a tripart assessment survey. Semin Hematol 34(3 Suppl 2):4–12Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Valko PO, Siddique A, Linsenmeier C, Zaugg K, Held U, Hofer S (2015) Prevalence and predictors of fatigue in glioblastoma: a prospective study. Neuro Oncol 17(2):274–281.  https://doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/nou127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sha F, Zhuang S, Zhou L, Zhang L, Yang Y, Zhang S, Jiang Y, Qiu G, Chen C, Zheng J, Zhang S (2015) Biomarkers for cancer-related fatigue and adverse reactions to chemotherapy in lung cancer patients. Mol Clin Oncol 3(1):163–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Balkwill F, Mantovani A (2001) Inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow? Lancet 357(9255):539–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hanahan D, Weinberg RA (2011) Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Cell 144(5):646–674.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2011.02.013CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lippitz BE (2013) Cytokine patterns in patients with cancer: a systematic review. Lancet Oncol 14(6):e218–e228.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70582-XCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pert MM, Hevey D, Boyle NT, Hughes MM, Collier S, O’Dwyer AM, Harkin A, Kennedy MJ, Connor TJ (2013) C-reactive protein predicts fatigue independently of depression in breast cancer patients prior to chemotherapy. Brain Behav Immun 34:108–119.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2013.07.177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang XS, Williams LA, Krishnan S, Liao Z, Liu P, Mao L, Shi Q, Mobley GM, Woodruff JF, Cleeland CS (2012) Serum sTNF-R1, IL-6, and the development of fatigue in patients with gastrointestinal cancer undergoing chemoradiation therapy. Brain Behav Immun 26(5):699–705.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2011.12.007CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bower JE, Ganz PA, Tao ML, Hu W, Belin TR, Sepah S, Cole S, Aziz N (2009) Inflammatory biomarkers and fatigue during radiation therapy for breast and prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 15(17):5534–5540.  https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-2584CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Orre IJ, Reinertsen KV, Aukrust P, Dahl AA, Fosså SD, Ueland T, Murison R (2011) Higher levels of fatigue are associated with higher CRP levels in disease-free breast cancer survivors. J Psychosom Res 71(3):136–141.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2011.04.003CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Orre IJ, Murison R, Dahl AA, Ueland T, Aukrust P, Fosså SD (2009) Levels of circulating interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and C-reactive protein in long-term survivors of testicular cancer with chronic cancer-related fatigue. Brain Behav Immun 23(6):868–874.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2009.04.003CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Collado-Hidalgo A, Bower JE, Ganz PA, Cole SW, Irwin MR (2006) Inflammatory biomarkers for persistent fatigue in breast cancer survivors. Clin Cancer Res 12(9):2759–2766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bower JE, Ganz PA, Aziz N, Fahey JL, Cole SW (2003) T-cell homeostasis in breast cancer survivors with persistent fatigue. J Natl Cancer Inst 95(15):1165–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Norden DM, Bicer S, Clark Y, Jing R, Henry CJ, Wold LE, Reiser PJ, Godbout JP, McCarthy DO (2015) Tumor growth increases neuroinflammation, fatigue and depressive-like behavior prior to alterations in muscle function. Brain Behav Immun 43:76–85.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2014.07.013CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bower JE, Lamkin DM (2013) Inflammation and cancer-related fatigue: mechanisms, contributing factors, and treatment implications. Brain Behav Immun 30(Suppl):S48–S57.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2012.06.011CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Capuron L, Miller AH (2011) Immune system to brain signaling: neuropsychopharmacological implications. Pharmacol Ther 130(2):226–238.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2011.01.014CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dantzer R, O’Connor JC, Freund GG, Johnson RW, Kelley KW (2008) From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain. Nat Rev Neurosci 9(1):46–56CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Seruga B, Zhang H, Bernstein LJ, Tannock IF (2008) Cytokines and their relationship to the symptoms and outcome of cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 8(11):887–899.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrc2507CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Liu L, Mills PJ, Rissling M, Fiorentino L, Natarajan L, Dimsdale JE, Sadler GR, Parker BA, Ancoli-Israel S (2012) Fatigue and sleep quality are associated with changes in inflammatory markers in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Brain Behav Immun 26(5):706–713.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2012.02.001CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Breitbart W, Rosenfeld B, Tobias K, Pessin H, Ku GY, Yuan J, Wolchok J (2014) Depression, cytokines, and pancreatic cancer. Psychooncology 23(3):339–345.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.3422CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Reinertsen KV, Grenaker Alnæs GI, Landmark-Høyvik H, Loge JH, Wist E, Kristensen VN, Fosså SD, Edvardsen H (2011) Fatigued breast cancer survivors and gene polymorphisms in the inflammatory pathway. Brain Behav Immun 25(7):1376–1383.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2011.04.001CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bower JE, Ganz PA, Irwin MR, Arevalo JM, Cole SW (2011) Fatigue and gene expression in human leukocytes: increased NF-κB and decreased glucocorticoid signaling in breast cancer survivors with persistent fatigue. Brain Behav Immun 25(1):147–150.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2010.09.010CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Collado-Hidalgo A, Bower JE, Ganz PA, Irwin MR, Cole SW (2008) Cytokine gene polymorphisms and fatigue in breast cancer survivors: early findings. Brain Behav Immun 22(8):1197–1200.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2008.05.009CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Miaskowski C, Dodd M, Lee K, West C, Paul SM, Cooper BA, Wara W, Swift PS, Dunn LB, Aouizerat BE (2010) Preliminary evidence of an association between a functional interleukin-6 polymorphism and fatigue and sleep disturbance in oncology patients and their family caregivers. J Pain Symptom Manage 40(4):531–544.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2009.12.006CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Saligan LN, Kim HS (2012) A systematic review of the association between immunogenomic markers and cancer-related fatigue. Brain Behav Immun 26(6):830–848CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fernstrom JD, Fernstrom MH (2006) Exercise, serum free tryptophan, and central fatigue. J Nutr 136(suppl):553S–559SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sharpe M, Hawton K, Clements A, Cowen PJ (1997) Increased brain serotonin function in men with chronic fatigue syndrome. BMJ 315:164–165CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Clement HW, Buschmann J, Rex S, Grote C, Opper C, Gemsa D, Wesemann W (1997) Effects of interferon-gamma, interleukin-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on the serotonin metabolism in the nucleus raphe dorsalis of the rat. J Neural Transm 104(10):981–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mössner R, Heils A, Stöber G, Okladnova O, Daniel S, Lesch KP (1998) Enhancement of serotonin transporter function by tumor necrosis factor alpha but not by interleukin-6. Neurochem Int 33(3):251–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zhu CB, Blakely RD, Hewlett WA (2006) The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha activate serotonin transporters. Neuropsychopharmacology 31(10):2121–2131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cleare AJ (2003) The neuroendocrinology of chronic fatigue syndrome. Endocr Rev 24(2):236–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shanks N, Harbuz MS, Jessop DS, Perks P, Moore PM, Lightman SL (1998) Inflammatory disease as chronic stress. Ann N Y Acad Sci 840:599–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wang XS (2008) Pathophysiology of cancer-related fatigue. Clin J Oncol Nurs 12(5 Suppl):11–20.  https://doi.org/10.1188/08.CJON.S2.11-20CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bower JE, Ganz PA, Aziz N (2005) Altered cortisol response to psychologic stress in breast cancer survivors with persistent fatigue. Psychosom Med 67:277–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ryan JL, Carroll JK, Ryan EP, Mustian KM, Fiscella K, Morrow GR (2007) Mechanisms of cancer-related fatigue. Oncologist 12(Suppl 1):22–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lundström S, Fürst CJ (2003) Symptoms in advanced cancer: Relationship to endogenous cortisol levels. Palliat Med 17:503–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Zhang S, Zeng D, Peng Y, Yang Y, Zhuang X, Li Z, Wang M, Chen L, Zhang H (2014) Cancer-related fatigue and chemotherapy-associated adverse effects: correlation with TNF-α, IL-1 and 17-hydroxycorticosteroids. Future Oncol 10(9):1619–1626.  https://doi.org/10.2217/fon.14.15. Epub 2014 Jan 22CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Vgontzas AN, Chrousos GP (2002) Sleep, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and cytokines: multiple interactions and disturbances in sleep disorders. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 31(1):15–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Del Priore G, Gurski KJ, Warshal DP, Angel C, Dubeshter B (1995) Adrenal function following high-dose steroids in ovarian cancer patients. Gynecol Oncol 59(1):102–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Morrow GR, Hickok JT, Andrews PL, Stern RM (2002) Reduction in serum cortisol after platinum based chemotherapy for cancer: a role for the HPA axis in treatment-related nausea? Psychophysiology 39(4):491–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Schmiegelow M, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Rasmussen AK, Lange M, Poulsen HS, Müller J (2003) Assessment of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy for childhood brain tumor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88(7):3149–3154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sephton S, Spiegel D (2003) Circadian disruption in cancer: a neuroendocrine-immune pathway from stress to disease? Brain Behav Immun 17(5):321–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Eismann EA, Lush E, Sephton SE (2010) Circadian effects in cancer-relevant psychoneuroendocrine and immune pathways. Psychoneuroendocrinology 35(7):963–976.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.12.011CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bower JE, Ganz PA, Dickerson SS, Petersen L, Aziz N, Fahey JL (2005) Diurnal cortisol rhythm and fatigue in breast cancer survivors. Psychoneuroendocrinology 30(1):92–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Weinrib AZ, Sephton SE, Degeest K, Penedo F, Bender D, Zimmerman B, Kirschbaum C, Sood AK, Lubaroff DM, Lutgendorf SK (2010) Diurnal cortisol dysregulation, functional disability, and depression in women with ovarian cancer. Cancer 116(18):4410–4419.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.25299CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rich TA (2007) Symptom clusters in cancer patients and their relation to EGFR ligand modulation of the circadian axis. J Support Oncol 5(4):167–174PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rich T, Innominato PF, Boerner J, Mormont MC, Iacobelli S, Baron B, Jasmin C, Lévi F (2005) Elevated serum cytokines correlated with altered behavior, serum cortisol rhythm, and dampened 24-hour rest-activity patterns in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res 11(5):1757–1764CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Roscoe JA, Kaufman ME, Matteson-Rusby SE, Palesh OG, Ryan JL, Kohli S, Perlis ML, Morrow GR (2007) Cancer-related fatigue and sleep disorders. Oncologist 12(Suppl 1):35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Otte JL, Carpenter JS, Manchanda S, Rand KL, Skaar TC, Weaver M, Chernyak Y, Zhong X, Igega C, Landis C (2015) Systematic review of sleep disorders in cancer patients: can the prevalence of sleep disorders be ascertained? Cancer Med 4(2):183–200.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cam4.356CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Berger AM (1998) Patterns of fatigue and activity and rest during adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy. Oncol Nurs Forum 25(1):51–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Roscoe J, Morrow GR, Hickok JT, Bushunow P, Matteson S, Rakita D, Andrews PL (2002) Temporal interrelationships among fatigue, circadian rhythm and depression in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment. Support Care Cancer 10(4):329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pickar JG, Hill JM, Kaufman MP (1993) Stimulation of vagal afferents inhibits locomotion in mesencephalic cats. J Appl Physiol 74:103–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Pickar JG (1998) The thromoboxane A2 mimetic U-46619 inhibits somatomotor activity via a vagal reflex from the lung. Am J Physiol 275:R706–R712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    DiCarlo SE, Collins HL, Chen C-Y (1994) Vagal afferents reflexly inhibit exercise in conscious rats. Med Sci Sports Exerc 26:459–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Opp MR, Toth LA (1998) Omnogenic and pyrogenic effects of interleukin-1b and lipopolysaccharide in intact and vagotomized rats. Life Sci 62:923–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hansen MK, Taishi P, Chen Z, Krueger JM (1998) Vagotomy blocks the induction of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA in the brain of rats in response to systemic IL-1β. J Neurosci 18:2247–2253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zielinski MR, Dunbrasky DL, Taishi P, Souza G, Krueger JM (2013) Vagotomy attenuates brain cytokines and sleep induced by peripherally administered tumor necrosis factor-α and lipopolysaccharide in mice. Sleep 36(8):1227–1238,. 1238A.  https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.2892CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Fagundes CP, Murray DM, Hwang BS, Gouin JP, Thayer JF, Sollers JJ 3rd, Shapiro CL, Malarkey WB, Kiecolt-Glaser JK (2011) Sympathetic and parasympathetic activity in cancer-related fatigue: more evidence for a physiological substrate in cancer survivors. Psychoneuroendocrinology 36(8):1137–1147.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.02.005CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fontes-Oliveira CC, Busquets S, Toledo M, Penna F, Paz Aylwin M, Sirisi S, Silva AP, Orpí M, García A, Sette A, Inês Genovese M, Olivan M, López-Soriano FJ, Argilés JM (2013) Mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic reticulum abnormalities in cancer cachexia: altered energetic efficiency? Biochim Biophys Acta 1830(3):2770–2778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Neefjes EC, van der Vorst MJ, Blauwhoff-Buskermolen S, Verheul HM (2013) Aiming for a better understanding and management of cancer-related fatigue. Oncologist 18(10):1135–1143.  https://doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2013-0076CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sobrero A, Puglisi F, Guglielmi A, Belvedere O, Aprile G, Ramello M, Grossi F (2001) Fatigue: a main component of anemia symptomatology. Semin Oncol 28(2 Suppl 8):15–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Revicki DA, Stull D, Vernon M, Rader M, Tomita D, Viswanathan HN (2012) Assessing the effect of darbepoetin alfa on patient-reported fatigue in chemotherapy-induced anemia in four randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Qual Life Res 21(2):311–321.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-011-9946-zCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Munch TN, Zhang T, Willey J, Palmer JL, Bruera E (2005) The association between anemia and fatigue in patients with advanced cancer receiving palliative care. J Palliat Med 8(6):1144–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Argilés JM, Busquets S, López-Soriano FJ (2006) Cytokines as mediators and targets for cancer cachexia. Cancer Treat Res 130:199–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Fearon K, Strasser F, Anker SD, Bosaeus I, Bruera E, Fainsinger RL, Jatoi A, Loprinzi C, MacDonald N, Mantovani G, Davis M, Muscaritoli M, Ottery F, Radbruch L, Ravasco P, Walsh D, Wilcock A, Kaasa S, Baracos VE (2011) Definition and classification of cancer cachexia: an international consensus. Lancet Oncol 12(5):489–495.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(10)70218-7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Jeejeebhoy KN (2012) Malnutrition, fatigue, frailty, vulnerability, sarcopenia and cachexia: overlap of clinical features. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 15(3):213–219.  https://doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0b013e328352694fCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mock V, Atkinson A, Barsevick A, Cella D, Cimprich B, Cleeland C, Donnelly J, Eisenberger MA, Escalante C, Hinds P, Jacobsen PB, Kaldor P, Knight SJ, Peterman A, Piper BF, Rugo H, Sabbatini P, Stahl C, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (2000) NCCN practice guidelines for cancer-related fatigue. Oncology (Williston Park) 14(11A):151–161Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jereczek-Fossa BA, Marsiglia HR, Orecchia R (2002) Radiotherapy-related fatigue. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 41(3):317–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    De Sanctis V, Agolli L, Visco V, Monaco F, Muni R, Spagnoli A, Campanella B, Valeriani M, Minniti G, Osti MF, Amanti C, Pellegrini P, Brunetti S, Costantini A, Alfò M, Torrisi MR, Marchetti P, Enrici RM (2014) Cytokines, fatigue, and cutaneous erythema in early stage breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiation therapy. Biomed Res Int 2014:523568.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/523568CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gutstein HB (2001) The biologic basis of fatigue. Cancer 92(6 Suppl):1678–1683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ahles TA, Saykin AJ (2007) Candidate mechanisms for chemotherapy-induced cognitive changes. Nat Rev Cancer 7(3):192–201CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Cheung YT, Lim SR, Ho HK, Chan A (2013) Cytokines as mediators of chemotherapy-associated cognitive changes: current evidence, limitations and directions for future research. PLoS One 8(12):e81234.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081234CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Janelsins MC, Mustian KM, Palesh OG, Mohile SG, Peppone LJ, Sprod LK, Heckler CE, Roscoe JA, Katz AW, Williams JP, Morrow GR (2012) Differential expression of cytokines in breast cancer patients receiving different chemotherapies: implications for cognitive impairment research. Support Care Cancer 20(4):831–839.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-011-1158-0CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Stone P, Hardy J, Huddart R, A’Hern R, Richards M (2000) Fatigue in patients with prostate cancer receiving hormone therapy. Eur J Cancer 36(9):1134–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bender CM, Paraska KK, Sereika SM, Ryan CM, Berga SL (2001) Cognitive function and reproductive hormones in adjuvant therapy for breast cancer: a critical review. J Pain Symptom Manage 21(5):407–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kirkwood JM, Bender C, Agarwala S, Tarhini A, Shipe-Spotloe J, Smelko B, Donnelly S, Stover L (2002) Mechanisms and management of toxicities associated with high-dose interferon alfa-2b therapy. J Clin Oncol 20(17):3703–3718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Santoni M, Conti A, Massari F, Arnaldi G, Iacovelli R, Rizzo M, De Giorgi U, Trementino L, Procopio G, Tortora G, Cascinu S (2015) Treatment-related fatigue with sorafenib, sunitinib and pazopanib in patients with advanced solid tumors: an up-to-date review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. Int J Cancer 136(1):1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.28715CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Schwartz AL (2007) Understanding and treating cancer-related fatigue. Oncology (Williston Park) 21(11 Suppl Nurse Ed):30–34Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Stone P, Richardson A, Ream E, Smith AG, Kerr DJ, Kearney N (2000) Cancer-related fatigue: inevitable, unimportant and untreatable? results of a multi-centre patient survey. Cancer Fatigue Forum. Ann Oncol 11(8):971–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Luthy C, Cedraschi C, Pugliesi A, Di Silvestro K, Mugnier-Konrad B, Rapiti E, Allaz AF (2011) Patients’ views about causes and preferences for the management of cancer-related fatigue-a case for non-congruence with the physicians? Support Care Cancer 19(3):363–370.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-010-0826-9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Cella D, Peterman A, Passik S, Jacobsen P, Breitbart W (1998) Progress toward guidelines for the management of fatigue. Oncology (Williston Park) 12(11A):369–377Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Yeh ET, Lau SC, Su WJ, Tsai DJ, Tu YY, Lai YL (2011) An examination of cancer-related fatigue through proposed diagnostic criteria in a sample of cancer patients in Taiwan. BMC Cancer 11:387.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-11-387CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Donovan KA, McGinty HL, Jacobsen PB (2013) A systematic review of research using the diagnostic criteria for cancer-related fatigue. Psychooncology 22(4):737–744.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.3085CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    NCCN, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (2015) NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Cancer-Related Fatigue. Version 2.2015. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. [Online]. [Cited: March 15, 2015]. http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/fatigue.pdf
  99. 99.
    Bower JE, Bak K, Berger A, Breitbart W, Escalante CP, Ganz PA, Schnipper HH, Lacchetti C, Ligibel JA, Lyman GH, Ogaily MS, Pirl WF, Jacobsen PB, American Society of Clinical Oncology (2014) Screening, assessment, and management of fatigue in adult survivors of cancer: an American Society of Clinical oncology clinical practice guideline adaptation. J Clin Oncol 32(17):1840–1850.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2013.53.4495CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Butt Z, Wagner LI, Beaumont JL, Paice JA, Peterman AH, Shevrin D, Von Roenn JH, Carro G, Straus JL, Muir JC, Cella D (2008) Use of a single-item screening tool to detect clinically significant fatigue, pain, distress, and anorexia in ambulatory cancer practice. J Pain Symptom Manage 35(1):20–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Minton O, Stone P (2009) A systematic review of the scales used for the measurement of cancer-related fatigue (CRF). Ann Oncol 20(1):17–25.  https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdn537CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mendoza TR, Wang XS, Cleeland CS, Morrissey M, Johnson BA, Wendt JK, Huber SL (1999) The rapid assessment of fatigue severity in cancer patients: use of the Brief Fatigue Inventory. Cancer 85(5):1186–1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Yellen SB, Cella DF, Webster K, Blendowski C, Kaplan E (1997) Measuring fatigue and other anemia-related symptoms with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) measurement system. J Pain Symptom Manage 13(2):63–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Aaronson NK, Ahmedzai S, Bergman B, Bullinger M, Cull A, Duez NJ, Filiberti A, Flechtner H, Fleishman SB, de Haes JC et al (1993) The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30: a quality-of-life instrument for use in international clinical trials in oncology. J Natl Cancer Inst 85(5):365–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Chalder T, Berelowitz G, Pawlikowska T, Watts L, Wessely S, Wright D, Wallace EP (1993) Development of a fatigue scale. J Psychosom Res 37(2):147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Piper BF, Dibble SL, Dodd MJ, Weiss MC, Slaughter RE, Paul SM (1998) The revised Piper Fatigue Scale: psychometric evaluation in women with breast cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum 25(4):677–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Smets EM, Garssen B, Bonke B, De Haes JC (1995) The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) psychometric qualities of an instrument to assess fatigue. J Psychosom Res 39(3):315–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Stein KD, Martin SC, Hann DM, Jacobsen PB (1998) A multidimensional measure of fatigue for use with cancer patients. Cancer Pract 6(3):143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Reif K, de Vries U, Petermann F, Görres S (2013) A patient education program is effective in reducing cancer-related fatigue: a multi-centre randomised two-group waiting-list controlled intervention trial. Eur J Oncol Nurs 17(2):204–213.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2012.07.002CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Yun YH, Lee KS, Kim YW, Park SY, Lee ES, Noh DY, Kim S, Oh JH, Jung SY, Chung KW, Lee YJ, Jeong SY, Park KJ, Shim YM, Zo JI, Park JW, Kim YA, Shon EJ, Park S (2012) Web-based tailored education program for disease-free cancer survivors with cancer-related fatigue: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 30(12):1296–1303.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2011.37.2979CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Barsevick AM, Dudley W, Beck S, Sweeney C, Whitmer K, Nail L (2004) A randomized clinical trial of energy conservation for patients with cancer-related fatigue. Cancer 100(6):1302–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    de Raaf PJ, de Klerk C, Timman R, Busschbach JJ, Oldenmenger WH, van der Rijt CC (2013) Systematic monitoring and treatment of physical symptoms to alleviate fatigue in patients with advanced cancer: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 31(6):716–723.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2012.44.4216CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Zee PC, Ancoli-Israel S, Workshop Participants (2009) Does effective management of sleep disorders reduce cancer-related fatigue? Drugs 69(Suppl 2):29–41.  https://doi.org/10.2165/11531140-000000000-00000CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Puetz TW, Herring MP (2012) Differential effects of exercise on cancer-related fatigue during and following treatment: a meta-analysis. Am J Prev Med 43(2):e1–e24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.04.027CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Paramanandam VS, Dunn V (2015) Exercise for the management of cancer-related fatigue in lung cancer: a systematic review. Eur J Cancer Care 24(1):4–14.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ecc.12198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Cramp F, Byron-Daniel J (2012) Exercise for the management of cancer-related fatigue in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 11:CD006145.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD006145.pub3CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    van Waart H, Stuiver MM, van Harten WH, Sonke GS, Aaronson NK (2010) Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES): a randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue. BMC Cancer 10:673.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-10-673CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Arnold M, Taylor NF (2010) Does exercise reduce cancer-related fatigue in hospitalised oncology patients? a systematic review. Onkologie 33(11):625–630.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000321145CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Oldervoll LM, Loge JH, Paltiel H, Asp MB, Vidvei U, Wiken AN, Hjermstad MJ, Kaasa S (2006) The effect of a physical exercise program in palliative care: a phase II study. J Pain Symptom Manage 31(5):421–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Eyigor S, Akdeniz S (2014) Is exercise ignored in palliative cancer patients? World J Clin Oncol 5(3):554–559.  https://doi.org/10.5306/wjco.v5.i3.554CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Campos MP, Hassan BJ, Riechelmann R, Del Giglio A (2011) Cancer-related fatigue: a review. Rev Assoc Med Bras 57(2):211–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kwekkeboom KL, Cherwin CH, Lee JW, Wanta B (2010) Mind-body treatments for the pain-fatigue-sleep disturbance symptom cluster in persons with cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage 39(1):126–138.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2009.05.022CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Goedendorp MM, Gielissen MF, Verhagen CA, Bleijenberg G (2009) Psychosocial interventions for reducing fatigue during cancer treatment in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1:CD006953.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD006953.pub2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Lotfi-Jam K, Carey M, Jefford M, Schofield P, Charleson C, Aranda S (2008) Nonpharmacologic strategies for managing common chemotherapy adverse effects: a systematic review. J Clin Oncol 26(34):5618–5629.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.15.9053CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Duijts SF, Faber MM, Oldenburg HS, van Beurden M, Aaronson NK (2011) Effectiveness of behavioral techniques and physical exercise on psychosocial functioning and health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients and survivors--a meta-analysis. Psychooncology 20(2):115–126.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.1728CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Brown P, Clark MM, Atherton P, Huschka M, Sloan JA, Gamble G, Girardi J, Frost MH, Piderman K, Rummans TA (2006) Will improvement in quality of life (QOL) impact fatigue in patients receiving radiation therapy for advanced cancer? Am J Clin Oncol 29(1):52–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Bower JE, Garet D, Sternlieb B, Ganz PA, Irwin MR, Olmstead R, Greendale G (2012) Yoga for persistent fatigue in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. Cancer 118(15):3766–3775.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.26702CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Johns SA, Brown LF, Beck-Coon K, Monahan PO, Tong Y, Kroenke K (2014) Randomized controlled pilot study of mindfulness-based stress reduction for persistently fatigued cancer survivors. Psychooncology 24:885–893.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.3648CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Molassiotis A, Bardy J, Finnegan-John J, Mackereth P, Ryder DW, Filshie J, Ream E, Richardson A (2012) Acupuncture for cancer-related fatigue in patients with breast cancer: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 30(36):4470–4476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Johnston MF, Hays RD, Subramanian SK, Elashoff RM, Axe EK, Li JJ, Kim I, Vargas RB, Lee J, Yang L, Hui KK (2011) Patient education integrated with acupuncture for relief of cancer-related fatigue randomized controlled feasibility study. BMC Complement Altern Med 11:49.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-11-49CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    He XR, Wang Q, Li PP (2013) Acupuncture and moxibustion for cancer-related fatigue: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 14(5):3067–3074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Tsang KL, Carlson LE, Olson K (2007) Pilot crossover trial of Reiki versus rest for treating cancer-related fatigue. Integr Cancer Ther 6(1):25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Oh B, Butow P, Mullan B, Clarke S, Beale P, Pavlakis N, Kothe E, Lam L, Rosenthal D (2010) Impact of medical Qigong on quality of life, fatigue, mood and inflammation in cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Oncol 21(3):608–614.  https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdp479CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Portenoy RK, Itri LM (1999) Cancer-related fatigue: guidelines for evaluation and management. Oncologist 4(1):1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Zick SM, Sen A, Han-Markey TL, Harris RE (2013) Examination of the association of diet and persistent cancer-related fatigue: a pilot study. Oncol Nurs Forum 40(1):E41–E49.  https://doi.org/10.1188/13.ONF.E41-E49CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Minton O, Richardson A, Sharpe M, Hotopf M, Stone P (2010) Drug therapy for the management of cancer-related fatigue. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 7:CD006704.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD006704.pub3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Moraska AR, Sood A, Dakhil SR, Sloan JA, Barton D, Atherton PJ, Suh JJ, Griffin PC, Johnson DB, Ali A, Silberstein PT, Duane SF, Loprinzi CL (2010) Phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of long-acting methylphenidate for cancer-related fatigue: North Central Cancer Treatment Group NCCTG-N05C7 trial. J Clin Oncol 28(23):3673–3679.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2010.28.1444CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Gong S, Sheng P, Jin H, He H, Qi E, Chen W, Dong Y, Hou L (2014) Effect of methylphenidate in patients with cancer-related fatigue: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 9(1):e84391.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084391CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Lower EE, Fleishman S, Cooper A, Zeldis J, Faleck H, Yu Z, Manning D (2009) Efficacy of dexmethylphenidate for the treatment of fatigue after cancer chemotherapy: a randomized clinical trial. J Pain Symptom Manage 38(5):650–662.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2009.03.011CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Jean-Pierre P, Morrow GR, Roscoe JA, Heckler C, Mohile S, Janelsins M, Peppone L, Hemstad A, Esparaz BT, Hopkins JO (2010) A phase 3 randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial of the effect of modafinil on cancer-related fatigue among 631 patients receiving chemotherapy:a University of Rochester Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program Research base st. Cancer 116(14):3513–3520.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.25083CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Norden DM, Devine R, Bicer S, Jing R, Reiser PJ, Wold LE, Godbout JP, McCarthy DO (2015) Fluoxetine prevents the development of depressive-like behavior in a mouse model of cancer related fatigue. Physiol Behav 140:230–235.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.12.045CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Morrow GR, Hickok JT, Roscoe JA, Raubertas RF, Andrews PL, Flynn PJ, Hynes HE, Banerjee TK, Kirshner JJ, King DK, University of Rochester Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program (2003) Differential effects of paroxetine on fatigue and depression: a randomized, double-blind trial from the University of Rochester Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program. J Clin Oncol 21(24):4635–4641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Palesh OG, Mustian KM, Peppone LJ, Janelsins M, Sprod LK, Kesler S, Innominato PF, Roth T, Manber R, Heckler C, Fiscella K, Morrow GR (2012) Impact of paroxetine on sleep problems in 426 cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a trial from the University of Rochester Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program. Sleep Med 13(9):1184–1190.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2012.06.001CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Cullum JL, Wojciechowski AE, Pelletier G, Simpson JS (2004) Bupropion sustained release treatment reduces fatigue in cancer patients. Can J Psychiatry 49(2):139–144CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Moss EL, Simpson JS, Pelletier G, Forsyth P (2006) An open-label study of the effects of bupropion SR on fatigue, depression and quality of life of mixed-site cancer patients and their partners. Psychooncology 15(3):259–267CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Denton A, Shaw J (2014) Corticosteroids in palliative care – perspectives of clinicians involved in prescribing: a qualitative study. BMC Palliat Care 13(1):50.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-684X-13-50CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Bruera E, Roca E, Cedaro L, Carraro S, Chacon R (1985) Action of oral methylprednisolone in terminal cancer patients: a prospective randomized double-blind study. Cancer Treat Rep 69(7–8):751–754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Tannock I, Gospodarowicz M, Meakin W, Panzarella T, Stewart L, Rider W (1989) Treatment of metastatic prostatic cancer with low-dose prednisone: evaluation of pain and quality of life as pragmatic indices of response. J Clin Oncol 7(5):590–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Yennurajalingam S, Frisbee-Hume S, Palmer JL, Delgado-Guay MO, Bull J, Phan AT, Tannir NM, Litton JK, Reddy A, Hui D, Dalal S, Massie L, Reddy SK, Bruera E (2013) Reduction of cancer-related fatigue with dexamethasone: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in patients with advanced cancer. J Clin Oncol 31(25):3076–3082.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2012.44.4661CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Paulsen O, Klepstad P, Rosland JH, Aass N, Albert E, Fayers P, Kaasa S (2014) Efficacy of methylprednisolone on pain, fatigue, and appetite loss in patients with advanced cancer using opioids: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. J Clin Oncol 32(29):3221–3228.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2013.54.3926CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    de Oliveira Campos MP, Riechelmann R, Martins LC, Hassan BJ, Casa FB, Del Giglio A (2011) Guarana (Paullinia cupana) improves fatigue in breast cancer patients undergoing systemic chemotherapy. J Altern Complement Med 17(6):505–512.  https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2010.0571CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Barton DL, Liu H, Dakhil SR, Linquist B, Sloan JA, Nichols CR, McGinn TW, Stella PJ, Seeger GR, Sood A, Loprinzi CL (2013) Wisconsin Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) to improve cancer-related fatigue: a randomized, double-blind trial, N07C2. J Natl Cancer Inst 105(16):1230–1238.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djt181CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Izzo AA, Ernst E (2009) Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: an updated systematic review. Drugs 69(13):1777–1798.  https://doi.org/10.2165/11317010-000000000-00000CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Bruera E, El Osta B, Valero V, Driver LC, Pei BL, Shen L, Poulter VA, Palmer JL (2007) Donepezil for cancer fatigue: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 25(23):3475–3481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Finnegan-John J, Molassiotis A, Richardson A, Ream E (2013) A systematic review of complementary and alternative medicine interventions for the management of cancer-related fatigue. Integr Cancer Ther 12(4):276–290.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1534735413485816CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Graziano F, Bisonni R, Catalano V, Silva R, Rovidati S, Mencarini E, Ferraro B, Canestrari F, Baldelli AM, De Gaetano A, Giordani P, Testa E, Lai V (2002) Potential role of levocarnitine supplementation for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced fatigue in non-anaemic cancer patients. Br J Cancer 86(12):1854–1857CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Cruciani RA, Zhang JJ, Manola J, Cella D, Ansari B, Fisch MJ (2012) L-carnitine supplementation for the management of fatigue in patients with cancer: an eastern cooperative oncology group phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 30(31):3864–3869.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2011.40.2180CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Lesser GJ, Case D, Stark N, Williford S, Giguere J, Garino LA, Naughton MJ, Vitolins MZ, Lively MO, Shaw EG, Wake Forest University Community Clinical Oncology Program Research Base (2013) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral coenzyme Q10 to relieve self-reported treatment-related fatigue in newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer. J Support Oncol 11(1):31–42PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Tookman AJ, Jones CL, DeWitte M, Lodge PJ (2008) Fatigue in patients with advanced cancer: a pilot study of an intervention with infliximab. Support Care Cancer 16(10):1131–1140.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-008-0429-xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Monk JP, Phillips G, Waite R, Kuhn J, Schaaf LJ, Otterson GA, Guttridge D, Rhoades C, Shah M, Criswell T, Caligiuri MA, Villalona-Calero MA (2006) Assessment of tumor necrosis factor alpha blockade as an intervention to improve tolerability of dose-intensive chemotherapy in cancer patients. J Clin Oncol 24(12):1852–1859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Kamath J, Feinn R, Winokur A (2012) Thyrotropin-releasing hormone as a treatment for cancer-related fatigue: a randomized controlled study. Support Care Cancer 20(8):1745–1753.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-011-1268-8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Koinis
    • 1
  • I. Gioulbasanis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical OncologyUniversity Hospital of HeraklionCreteGreece

Personalised recommendations