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Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  • Eddy SupriyadiEmail author
  • Pudjo Hagung Widjajanto
Chapter

Abstract

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy in children, accounts for one-fourth of childhood cancers. The incidence peaks in children aged between 2 and 5 years, which is higher in boys than girls. Genetic factors, environmental factors, viral infection, and immunodeficiency have been associated with ALL. However, the cause of ALL remains unknown. ALL may be found on incidental finding on a routine blood cell count of an asymptomatic child or as a life-threatening hemorrhage or infections. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings and laboratory examinations included: leukemic lymphoblasts examination for morphologic, immunologic, cytogenetic and molecular genetics characterizations. The treatment typically consists of four phases: a remission induction, intensification, CNS prophylaxis and continuation therapy, and should be adapted on the local situation. Leukocyte count, age at diagnosis and immunophenotype are important prognostic factors.

Keywords

ALL Diagnostic Treatment Prognostic 

Abbreviations

ALL

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

AML

Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

EFS

Event-Free Survival

CNS

Central Nervous System

WBC

White Blood Cell

GIT

Gastro Intestinal Tract

LDH

Lactate Dehydrogenase

DIC

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

FAB

French American British

WHO

World Health Organization

CD

Cluster of Differentiation

CNS

Central Nervous System

6-MP

6-Mercaptopurine

MTX

Methotrexate

TLS

Tumor Lysis Syndrome

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Dr Sardjito Hospital, Faculty of MedicineUniversitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia

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