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Anal Cancer

  • Tiago Costa de Pádua
  • Hakaru Tadokoro
  • Ramon Andrade De MelloEmail author
  • Nora Manoukian Forones
Chapter

Abstract

Anal cancer is a rare malignancy, with increasing incidence, strongly associated with HPV infection. After making the diagnosis, a multidisciplinary discussion is essential for better management. The cornerstone of the treatment is chemoradiotherapy for localized disease with good chances of cure and preservation of the anal function. In cases of relapsed or metastatic disease, systemic therapy is indicated. There is a lack of randomized trials and prognosis is still poor. Immunotherapy represents a hope in the treatment of this disease.

Keywords

Anal cancer HPV infection Chemoradiotherapy Immunotherapy 

Abbreviations

SCC

Squamous cell carcinoma

HPV

Human papillomavirus

MSM

Men who have sex with other man

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

AIN

Anal squamous intra-epithelial lesions

DRE

Digital rectal examination

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

EUS

Endoanal ultrasound

CT

Computed tomography

PET/CT

Positron emission tomography

TNM

Tumor–node–metastasis

AJCC

American Joint Committee on Cancer

UICC

Union for International Cancer Control

CRT

Chemoradiotherapy

IMRT

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tiago Costa de Pádua
    • 1
  • Hakaru Tadokoro
    • 2
  • Ramon Andrade De Mello
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Nora Manoukian Forones
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Medical OncologyUniversidade Federal de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Division of Medical Oncology, Escola Paulista de MedicinaFederal University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Division of Medical OncologyFederal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP) & Hospital Israelita Albert EinsteinSão PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical Sciences and MedicineUniversity of AlgarveFaroPortugal
  5. 5.Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP)São PauloBrazil

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