Anal Cancer

  • Tiago Costa de Pádua
  • Hakaru Tadokoro
  • Ramon Andrade De MelloEmail author
  • Nora Manoukian Forones


Anal cancer is a rare malignancy, with increasing incidence, strongly associated with HPV infection. After making the diagnosis, a multidisciplinary discussion is essential for better management. The cornerstone of the treatment is chemoradiotherapy for localized disease with good chances of cure and preservation of the anal function. In cases of relapsed or metastatic disease, systemic therapy is indicated. There is a lack of randomized trials and prognosis is still poor. Immunotherapy represents a hope in the treatment of this disease.


Anal cancer HPV infection Chemoradiotherapy Immunotherapy 



Squamous cell carcinoma


Human papillomavirus


Men who have sex with other man


Human immunodeficiency virus


Anal squamous intra-epithelial lesions


Digital rectal examination


Magnetic resonance imaging


Endoanal ultrasound


Computed tomography


Positron emission tomography




American Joint Committee on Cancer


Union for International Cancer Control




Intensity-modulated radiation therapy


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tiago Costa de Pádua
    • 1
  • Hakaru Tadokoro
    • 2
  • Ramon Andrade De Mello
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Nora Manoukian Forones
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Medical OncologyUniversidade Federal de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Division of Medical Oncology, Escola Paulista de MedicinaFederal University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Division of Medical OncologyFederal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP) & Hospital Israelita Albert EinsteinSão PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical Sciences and MedicineUniversity of AlgarveFaroPortugal
  5. 5.Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP)São PauloBrazil

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