Advertisement

Small Cell Lung Cancer

  • Thatthan Suksombooncharoen
  • Apichat TantraworasinEmail author
  • Sarawut Kongkarnka
  • Nirush Lertprasertsuke
  • Yutthaphan Wannasopha
Chapter

Abstract

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a disease of the smoking population. The incidence decreased to approximately 13% of all lung cancer because of a decrease in the number of cigarette smokers. The majority of patients are diagnosed with advanced stage due to the aggressive behavior. SCLC is highly responsive to combination chemotherapy however the survival time seems dismal because of the high rate of relapsing disease. Many targeted therapy are still ineffective. The immunotherapy might be effective in SCLC but there are only limited data have been reported.

Keywords

Small cell lung cancer Neuroendocrine tumor Prophylactic cranial irradiation 

Abbreviations

CT

Computed Tomography

GI

Gastrointestinal

IASLC

International Association Study of Lung Cancer

JCOG

Japan Clinical Oncology Group

LCNEC

Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

NET

Neuroendocrine Tumor

OS

Overall Survival

PCI

Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

PET

Positron Emission Tomography

RCT

Randomized Controlled Trial

SCLC

Small Cell Lung Cancer

SIADH

Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone

TRT

Thoracic Radiotherapy

References

  1. 1.
    Govindan R, Page N, Morgensztern D, Read W, Tierney R, Vlahiotis A et al (2006) Changing epidemiology of small-cell lung cancer in the United States over the last 30 years: analysis of the surveillance, epidemiologic, and end results database. J Clin Oncol 24(28):4539–4544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Riaz SP, Luchtenborg M, Coupland VH, Spicer J, Peake MD, Moller H (2012) Trends in incidence of small cell lung cancer and all lung cancer. Lung Cancer 75(3):280–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Low M, Ben-Or S (2018) Thoracic surgery in early-stage small cell lung cancer. Thorac Surg Clin 28(1):9–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Evans WK, Osoba D, Feld R, Shepherd FA, Bazos MJ, DeBoer G (1985) Etoposide (VP-16) and cisplatin: an effective treatment for relapse in small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 3(1):65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fukuoka M, Furuse K, Saijo N, Nishiwaki Y, Ikegami H, Tamura T et al (1991) Randomized trial of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine versus cisplatin and etoposide versus alternation of these regimens in small-cell lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 83(12):855–861PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hanna N, Jr PAB, Langer C, Einhorn L, Jr TG, Beck T et al (2006) Randomized phase iii trial comparing irinotecan/cisplatin with etoposide/cisplatin in patients with previously untreated extensive-stage disease small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 24(13):2038–2043PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jr PNL, Natale R, Crowley J, Lenz HJ, Redman MW, Carleton JE et al (2009) Phase III trial of irinotecan/cisplatin compared with etoposide/cisplatin in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: clinical and pharmacogenomic results from SWOG S0124. J Clin Oncol 27(15):2530–2535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schmittel A, Sebastian M, Fischer von Weikersthal L, Martus P, Gauler TC, Kaufmann C et al (2011) A German multicenter, randomized phase III trial comparing irinotecan-carboplatin with etoposide-carboplatin as first-line therapy for extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer. Ann Oncol 22(8):1798–1804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Noda K, Nishiwaki Y, Kawahara M, Negoro S, Sugiura T, Yokoyama A et al (2002) Irinotecan plus Cisplatin compared with Etoposide plus Cisplatin for extensive small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 346(2):85–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Roth BJ, Johnson DH, Einhorn LH, Schacter LP, Cherng NC, Cohen HJ et al (1992) Randomized study of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine versus etoposide and cisplatin versus alternation of these two regimens in extensive small-cell lung cancer: a phase III trial of the Southeastern Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 10(2):282–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sundstrom S, Bremnes RM, Kaasa S, Aasebo U, Hatlevoll R, Dahle R et al (2002) Cisplatin and etoposide regimen is superior to cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and vincristine regimen in small-cell lung cancer: results from a randomized phase III trial with 5 years’ follow-up. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 20(24):4665–4672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kahnert K, Kauffmann-Guerrero D, Huber RM (2016) SCLC-State of the art and what does the future have in store? Clin Lung Cancer 17(5):325–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jett JR, Schild SE, Kesler KA, Kalemkerian GP (2013) Treatment of small cell lung cancer. Chest 143(5):e400S–ee19SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xanthopoulos EP, Corradetti MN, Mitra N, Fernandes AT, Kim M, Grover S et al (2013) Impact of PET staging in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol 8(7):899–905PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nicholson AG, Chansky K, Crowley J, Beyruti R, Kubota K, Turrisi A et al (2016) The International Association for the study of lung cancer lung cancer staging project: proposals for the revision of the clinical and pathologic staging of small cell lung cancer in the forthcoming eighth edition of the TNM classification for lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol 11(3):300–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rami-Porta R (2016) Staging manual in thoracic oncology, 2nd edn. Editorial Rx Press, North Fort Myers, Aurora, COGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Goldstraw P, Crowley J, Chansky K, Giroux DJ, Groome PA, Rami-Porta R et al (2007) The IASLC lung cancer staging project: proposals for the revision of the TNM stage groupings in the forthcoming (seventh) edition of the TNM classification of malignant tumours. J Thorac Oncol 2(8):706–714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pelosi G, Sonzogni A, Harari S, Albini A, Bresaola E, Marchio C et al (2017) Classification of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors: new insights. Transl Lung Cancer Res 6(5):513–529PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Travis WD, Brambilla E, Nicholson AG, Yatabe Y, Austin JHM, Beasley MB et al (2015) The 2015 World Health Organization Classification of Lung Tumors: impact of genetic, clinical and radiologic advances since the 2004 classification. J Thorac Oncol 10(9):1243–1260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pavel ME, Singh S, Strosberg JR, Bubuteishvili-Pacaud L, Degtyarev E, Neary MP et al (2017) Health-related quality of life for everolimus versus placebo in patients with advanced, non-functional, well-differentiated gastrointestinal or lung neuroendocrine tumours (RADIANT-4): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 18(10):1411–1422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pottgen C, Eberhardt W, Stuschke M (2004) Prophylactic cranial irradiation in lung cancer. Curr Treat Options in Oncol 5(1):43–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ost DE, Jim Yeung S-C, Tanoue LT, Gould MK (2013) Clinical and organizational factors in the initial evaluation of patients with lung cancer. Chest 143(5):e121S–ee41SPubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wakeam E, Acuna SA, Leighl NB, Giuliani ME, Finlayson SRG, Varghese TK et al (2017) Surgery versus chemotherapy and radiotherapy for early and locally advanced small cell lung cancer: a propensity-matched analysis of survival. Lung Cancer 109:78–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schreiber D, Rineer J, Weedon J, Vongtama D, Wortham A, Kim A et al (2010) Survival outcomes with the use of surgery in limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Cancer 116(5):1350–1357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yu JB, Decker RH, Detterbeck FC, Wilson LD (2010) Surveillance epidemiology and end results evaluation of the role of surgery for stage i small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol 5(2):215–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    de Hoyos A, DeCamp MM (2014) Surgery for small cell lung cancer. Thorac Surg Clin 24(4):399–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Warde P, Payne D (1992) Does thoracic irradiation improve survival and local control in limited-stage small-cell carcinoma of the lung? A meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol 10(6):890–895PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pignon J-P, Arriagada R, Ihde DC, Johnson DH, Perry MC, Souhami RL et al (1992) A meta-analysis of thoracic radiotherapy for small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 327(23):1618–1624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Takada M, Fukuoka M, Kawahara M, Sugiura T, Yokoyama A, Yokota S et al (2002) Phase III study of concurrent versus sequential thoracic radiotherapy in combination with cisplatin and etoposide for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer: results of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study 9104. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 20(14):3054–3060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Turrisi AT, Kim K, Blum R, Sause WT, Livingston RB, Komaki R et al (1999) Twice-daily compared with once-daily thoracic radiotherapy in limited small-cell lung cancer treated concurrently with cisplatin and etoposide. N Engl J Med 340(4):265–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fried DB, Morris DE, Poole C, Rosenman JG, Halle JS, Detterbeck FC et al (2004) Systematic review evaluating the timing of thoracic radiation therapy in combined modality therapy for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 22(23):4837–4845PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pijls-Johannesma M, De Ruysscher D, Vansteenkiste J, Kester A, Rutten I, Lambin P (2007) Timing of chest radiotherapy in patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Cancer Treat Rev 33(5):461–473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sun JM, Ahn YC, Choi EK, Ahn MJ, Ahn JS, Lee SH et al (2013) Phase III trial of concurrent thoracic radiotherapy with either first- or third-cycle chemotherapy for limited-disease small-cell lung cancer†. Ann Oncol 24(8):2088–2092PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yee D, Butts C, Reiman A, Joy A, Smylie M, Fenton D et al (2012) Clinical trial of post-chemotherapy consolidation thoracic radiotherapy for extensive-stage small cell lung cancer. Radiother Oncol 102(2):234–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Slotman BJ, van Tinteren H, Praag JO, Knegjens JL, El Sharouni SY, Hatton M et al (2015) Use of thoracic radiotherapy for extensive stage small-cell lung cancer: a phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet (London, England) 385(9962):36–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Schiller JH, Adak S, Cella D, RF DV 3rd, Johnson DH (2001) Topotecan versus observation after cisplatin plus etoposide in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: E7593–a phase III trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 19(8):2114–2122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Thatcher N, Faivre-Finn C, Lorigan P (2005) Lung cancer: Management of small-cell lung cancer. Ann Oncol 16(suppl_2):ii235–iiii9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Auperin A, Arriagada R, Pignon JP, Le Pechoux C, Gregor A, Stephens RJ et al (1999) Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Overview Collaborative Group. N Engl J Med 341(7):476–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Meert AP, Paesmans M, Berghmans T, Martin B, Mascaux C, Vallot F et al (2001) Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer: a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis. BMC Cancer 1:5PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lee JJ, Bekele BN, Zhou X, Cantor SB, Komaki R, Lee JS (2006) Decision analysis for prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 24(22):3597–3603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Slotman B, Faivre-Finn C, Kramer G, Rankin E, Snee M, Hatton M et al (2007) Prophylactic cranial irradiation in extensive small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 357(7):664–672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ozawa Y, Omae M, Fujii M, Matsui T, Kato M, Sagisaka S et al (2015) Management of brain metastasis with magnetic resonance imaging and stereotactic irradiation attenuated benefits of prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer. BMC Cancer 15:589PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zhang W, Jiang W, Luan L, Wang L, Zheng X, Wang G (2014) Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis. BMC Cancer 14:793PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pujol JL (2000) Carestia, Daurès JP. Is there a case for cisplatin in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer? A meta-analysis of randomized trials of a cisplatin-containing regimen versus a regimen without this alkylating agent. Br J Cancer 83:8PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kubota K, Hida T, Ishikura S, Mizusawa J, Nishio M, Kawahara M et al (2014) Etoposide and cisplatin versus irinotecan and cisplatin in patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer treated with etoposide and cisplatin plus concurrent accelerated hyperfractionated thoracic radiotherapy (JCOG0202): a randomised phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol 15(1):106–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Go RS, Adjei AA (1999) Review of the comparative pharmacology and clinical activity of cisplatin and carboplatin. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 17(1):409–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rossi A, Maio MD, Chiodini P, Rudd RM, Okamoto H, Skarlos DV et al (2012) Carboplatin- or cisplatin-based chemotherapy in first-line treatment of small-cell lung cancer: the COCIS meta-analysis of individual patient data. J Clin Oncol 30(14):1692–1698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hermes A, Bergman B, Bremnes R, Ek L, Fluge S, Sederholm C et al (2008) Irinotecan plus carboplatin versus oral etoposide plus carboplatin in extensive small-cell lung cancer: a randomized phase III trial. J Clin Oncol 26(26):4261–4267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Loehrer PJ Sr, Ansari R, Gonin R, Monaco F, Fisher W, Sandler A et al (1995) Cisplatin plus etoposide with and without ifosfamide in extensive small-cell lung cancer: a Hoosier Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 13(10):2594–2599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mavroudis D, Papadakis E, Veslemes M, Tsiafaki X, Stavrakakis J, Kouroussis C et al (2001) A multicenter randomized clinical trial comparing paclitaxel-cisplatin-etoposide versus cisplatin-etoposide as first-line treatment in patients with small-cell lung cancer. Ann Oncol 12(4):463–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Miyamoto H, Nakabayashi T, Isobe H, Akita H, Kawakami Y, Arimoto T et al (1992) A phase III comparison of etoposide/cisplatin with or without added ifosfamide in small-cell lung cancer. Oncology 49(6):431–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Niell HB, II JEH, Miller AA, Watson DM, Sandler AB, Kelly K et al (2005) Randomized phase III Intergroup Trial of etoposide and cisplatin with or without paclitaxel and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: cancer and leukemia Group B trial 9732. J Clin Oncol 23(16):3752–3759PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Owonikoko TK, Behera M, Chen Z, Bhimani C, Curran WJ, Khuri FR et al (2012) A systematic analysis of efficacy of second-line chemotherapy in sensitive and refractory small-cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol 7(5):866–872PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    O’Brien MER, Ciuleanu T-E, Tsekov H, Shparyk Y, Čučeviá B, Juhasz G et al (2006) Phase III trial comparing supportive care alone with supportive care with oral topotecan in patients with relapsed small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 24(34):5441–5447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    von Pawel J, Schiller JH, Shepherd FA, Fields SZ, Kleisbauer JP, Chrysson NG et al (1999) Topotecan versus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine for the treatment of recurrent small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 17(2):658–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Taylor M, Antonia S, Bendell J, Calvo E, Jäger D, de Braud F et al (2015) Phase I/II study of nivolumab with or without ipilimumab for treatment of recurrent small cell lung cancer (SCLC): CA209-032. J Immunother Cancer 3(Suppl 2):P376PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Eckardt JR, von Pawel J, Pujol JL, Papai Z, Quoix E, Ardizzoni A et al (2007) Phase III study of oral compared with intravenous topotecan as second-line therapy in small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol: Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 25(15):2086–2092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Goto K, Ohe Y, Shibata T, Seto T, Takahashi T, Nakagawa K et al (2016) Combined chemotherapy with cisplatin, etoposide, and irinotecan versus topotecan alone as second-line treatment for patients with sensitive relapsed small-cell lung cancer (JCOG0605): a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 17(8):1147–1157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Antonia SJ, Bendell JC, Taylor MH, Calvo E, Jaeger D, Braud FGD et al (2015) Phase I/II study of nivolumab with or without ipilimumab for treatment of recurrent small cell lung cancer (SCLC): CA209-032. J Clin Oncol 33(15_suppl):7503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chae YK, Pan A, Davis AA, Mohindra N, Matsangou M, Villaflor V et al (2017) Recent advances and future strategies for immune-checkpoint inhibition in small-cell lung cancer. Clin Lung Cancer 18(2):132–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ott PA, Elez E, Hiret S, Kim DW, Morosky A, Saraf S et al (2017) Pembrolizumab in patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: results from the phase Ib KEYNOTE-028 Study. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 35:3823–3829.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2017.72.5069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ott P, Felip E, Hiret S, Kim D-W, Morosky A, Saraf S et al (2017) OA05.01 pembrolizumab in patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer; Updated survival results from KEYNOTE-028. J Thorac Oncol 12(1):S259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Reck M, Bondarenko I, Luft A, Serwatowski P, Barlesi F, Chacko R et al (2013) Ipilimumab in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin as first-line therapy in extensive-disease-small-cell lung cancer: results from a randomized, double-blind, multicenter phase 2 trial. Ann Oncol: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology 24(1):75–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thatthan Suksombooncharoen
    • 1
  • Apichat Tantraworasin
    • 2
    Email author
  • Sarawut Kongkarnka
    • 3
  • Nirush Lertprasertsuke
    • 3
  • Yutthaphan Wannasopha
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of MedicineChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  2. 2.Department of Surgery, Faculty of MedicineChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  3. 3.Department of Pathology, Faculty of MedicineChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  4. 4.Department of Radiology, Faculty of MedicineChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand

Personalised recommendations