Cancer Epidemiology and Screening

  • Gustavo Trautman Stock
  • Pedro Nazareth AguiarJr.
  • Hakaru Tadokoro
  • Ramon Andrade De MelloEmail author


The world is facing an increase in the cancer incidence and mortality, making malignant neoplasms one of the leading causes of death worldwide. This increasing trend is predicted to continue in the next decades, with an estimated >23 million new cases and 13 million deaths caused by cancer by 2030. Excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, lung, breast, colorectal, prostate, and stomach cancers are the most common, while lung, liver, stomach, colorectal, breast, and esophageal cancers have the highest mortality rate. The prevalence of cancer in developed countries is >two-fold that in developing countries, however, cancer rates are expected to rise among developing countries, because of the ageing, population growth, and the adoption of unhealthy western lifestyle habits. Delivering high quality cancer care at an affordable cost is one of the main challenges for health care professionals and policy makers. The global cost of cancer in 2008 due to premature death and disability, excluding direct medical costs, was estimated at $895 billion in the United States. Measures to reduce the incidence of cancer include the avoidance and modification of risk factors, vaccination against oncogenic biologic agents and the early detection of risk lesions through screening programs.


Cancer screening Breast cancer Colon cancer 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gustavo Trautman Stock
    • 1
  • Pedro Nazareth AguiarJr.
    • 1
  • Hakaru Tadokoro
    • 2
  • Ramon Andrade De Mello
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Medical Oncology, Escola Paulista de MedicinaFederal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP)São PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Division of Medical Oncology, Escola Paulista de MedicinaFederal University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Division of Medical OncologyFederal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP) & Hospital Israelita Albert EinsteinSão PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical Sciences and MedicineUniversity of AlgarveFaroPortugal

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