Bioreactors Operating Conditions

  • Leonardo Machado da Rosa
  • Daniela Maria Koerich
  • Saulo Varela Della Giustina
Part of the Learning Materials in Biosciences book series (LMB)


Wine production was one of the first areas where fermentation was used. At that time, the term fermentation was related to the conversion of sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Later, the word was related to microorganisms, due to the demonstration of the role of yeasts by Pasteur, and in the following decades became more related to enzymes. The term fermentation is associated with the metabolic process in which an organic substrate undergoes chemical changes due to the activities of enzymes secreted by microorganisms. Nowadays, fermenters are widely used in the most diverse processes, as in the conversion of biomass to biofuels such as ethanol, biohydrogen, and butanol, food additives and supplements, animal nutrition, industrial enzymes, pharmaceutical products, and chemicals, as well as to treat or provide valorization of industrial waste.


Bioreactors Fermentative processes Operating conditions Operation mode Process control 


  1. 1.
    Abbasi T, Tauseef SM, Abbasi SA. Anaerobic digestion for global warming control and energy generation—an overview. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2012;16:3228–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allied Electronics & Automation. 8 common level sensing technologies. 2018. Accessed 17 Apr 2018
  3. 3.
    Amerina MA, Berg HW, Kunkee RE, Ough CS, Singleton VL, Webb AD. Technology of wine making. 4th ed. Westport: AVI Publishing Company Inc.; 1979.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bleoanca I, Bahrim G. Overview on brewing yeast stress factors. Rom Biotechnol Lett. 2013;18:8560.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brennan L, Owende P. Biofuels from microalgae – a review of technologies for production, processing, and extractions of biofuels and co-products. Renew Sust Energ Rev. 2010;14:557–77. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brosse N, Dufour A, Meng X, Sun Q, Ragauskas A. Miscanthus: a fast-growing crop for biofuels and chemicals production. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin. 2012;6(5):580–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Campesi A, Cerri MO, Hokka MO, Badino AC. Determination of the average shear rate in a stirred and aerated tank bioreactor. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2009;32:241–8. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chandrashekhar H, Rao JV. An overview of fermenter and the design considerations to enhance its productivity. Pharmacologyonline. 2010;1:261–301.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chong M-L, Sabaratnam V, Shirai Y, Hassan MA. Biohydrogen production from biomass and industrial wastes by dark fermentation. Int J Hydrog Energy. 2009;34:3277–87. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Es I, Khaneghad AM, Barba FJ, Saraiva JA, Sant’Ana AS, Hashemi SMB. Recent advancements in lactic acid production – a review. Food Res Int. 2018;107:763–70. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fan LS. Gas-liquid-solid fluidization engineering. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1989.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    FDA – U.S. Federal Food and Drug Administration. Inspection technical guide: water activity (aw) in foods. 1984. Accessed 27 July 2018.
  13. 13.
    Fontana RC, Polidoro TA, Silveira MM. Comparison of stirred tank and airlift bioreactors in the production of polygalacturonases by Aspergillus oryzae. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100(19):4493–8. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Garcia-Ochoa F, Gomez E, Santos VE, Merchuk JC. Oxygen uptake rate in microbial processes: an overview. Biochem Eng J. 2010;49(3):289–307. Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ghildyal NP, Lonsane BK, Karanth NG. Foam control in submerged fermentation: state of the art. Adv Appl Microbiol. 1988;33:173–222. Scholar
  16. 16.
    Goldberg E. Handbook of downstream processing. London: Elsevier; 1997. 720p. ISBN: 978-94-009-1563-3.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Graminha EBN, Gonçalves AZL, Pirota RDPB, Balsalobre MAA, da Silva R, Gomes E. Enzyme production by solid-state fermentation: application to animal nutrition. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 2008;144(2008):1–22. Scholar
  18. 18.
    Green EM. Fermentative production of butanol – the industrial perspective. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2011;22:337–43. Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jönsson LJ, Alriksson B, Nilvebrant N-O. Bioconversion of lignocellulose: inhibitors and detoxification. Biotechnol Biofuels. 2013;6:16. Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jun Y-S, Lee EZ, Huh YS, Hong YK, Hong WH, Lee SY. Kinetic study for the extraction of succinic acid with TOA in fermentation broth; effects of pH, salt and contaminated acid. Biochem Eng J. 2007;36:8–13. Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kaur G, Srivastava AK, Chand S. Debottlenecking product inhibition in 1,3-propanediol fermentation by in-situ product recovery. Bioresour Technol. 2015;197(2015):451–7. Scholar
  22. 22.
    Koerich DM, Rosa LM. Optimization of bioreactor operating conditions using computational fluid dynamics techniques. Can J Chem Eng. 2017;95:199–204. Scholar
  23. 23.
    Koerich DM, Lopes GC, Rosa LM. Investigation of phases interactions and modification of drag models for liquid-solid fluidized bed tapered bioreactors. Powder Technol. 2018;339:90–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Koutinas AA, Vlysidis A, Pleissner D, Kopsahelis N, Garcia IL, Kookos IK, Papanikolaou S, Kwan TH, Lin CSK. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers. Chem Soc Rev. 2014;43(8):2587–627. Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kumar M, Gayen K. Developments in biobutanol production: new insights. Appl Energy. 2011;88:1999–2012. Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lin Z, Liu H, Yan X, Zhou Y, Cheng K, Zhang J. High-efficiency acetone-butanol-ethanol production and recovery in non-strict anaerobic gas stripping fed-batch fermentation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017;101:8029–39. Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liu R, Li J, Shen F. Refining bioethanol from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by immobilized yeast fermentation. Renew Energy. 2008;33(5):1130–5. Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lonsane BK, Ghildyal NP, Budiatman S, Ramakrishna SV. Engineering aspects of solid state fermentation. Enzym Microb Technol. 1985;7:258–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Maddox IS, Qureshi N, Roberts-Thomson K. Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol from concentrated substrates using clostridium acetobutylicum in an integrated fermentation-product removal process. Process Biochem. 1995;30(3):209–15.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Martínez JL, Liu L, Petranovic D, Nielsen J. Pharmaceutical protein production by yeast: towards production of human blood proteins by microbial fermentation. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2012;23(6):965–71. Scholar
  31. 31.
    Maurina GZ, Rosa LM, Beal LL, Baldasso C, Gimenez JR, Torres AP, Sousa MP. Effect of internal recirculation velocity in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). Braz J Chem Eng. 2014;31(4):895–903. Scholar
  32. 32.
    Metzner AB, Feehs RH, Ramos HL, Otto RE, Tuthill JD. Agitation of viscous Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. AICHE J. 1961;7(1):3–9. Scholar
  33. 33.
    Naik SN, Goud VV, Rout PK, Dalai AK. Production of first and second generation biofuels: a comprehensive review. Renew Sust Energ Rev. 2010;14:578–97. Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nath K, Das D. Modeling and optimization of fermentative hydrogen production. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:8569–81. Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ni M, Leung DYC, Leung MKH, Sumathy K. An overview of hydrogen production from biomass. Fuel Process Technol. 2006;87:461–72. Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pandey A. Solid-state fermentation. Biochem Eng J. 2003;13:81–4. Scholar
  37. 37.
    Paul EL, Atiemo-Obeng VA, Kresta SM. Turbulence in mixing applications. In: Handbook of industrial mixing: science and practice. Hoboken: Wiley-Interscience; 2004. p. 43–5.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pilkington PH, Margaritis A, Mensour NA, Russel I. Fundamentals of immobilised yeast cells for continuous beer fermentation: a review. J Inst Brew. 1998;104:19–31. Scholar
  39. 39.
    Potter NN. La ciencia de los alimentos. Westport: AVI Publishing Company Inc.; 1973.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ravindra P. Value-added food: single cell protein. Biotechnol Adv. 2000;18(6):459–79. Scholar
  41. 41.
    Razzak SA, Hossain MM, Lucky RA, Bassi AS, de Lasa H. Integrated CO2 capture, wastewater treatment and biofuel production by microalgae culturing – a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev. 2013;27:622–53. Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ren N, Guo W, Liu B, Cao G, Ding J. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation: challenges and prospects towards scaled-up production. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2011;22:365–70. Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sánchez OJ, Cardona CA. Trends in biotechnological production of fuel ethanol from different feedstocks. Bioresour Technol. 2008;99(13):5270–95. Scholar
  44. 44.
    Show K-Y, Lee D-J, Chang J-S. Bioreactor and process design for biohydrogen production. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:8524–33. Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sreenivasulu V, Jayaveera KN, Mallikarjuna RP. Solid-state fermentation for the production of L-asparaginase by Aspergillus sp. Res J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2009;1:21–5.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stambury PF, Whitaker A, Hall SJ. Principles of fermentation technology. 2nd ed. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1995.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Stredansky M, Conti E. Succinoglycan production by solid-state fermentation with agrobacterium tumefaciens. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1999;52(3):332–7. Scholar
  48. 48.
    Thomas L, Larroche C, Pandey A. Current developments in solid-state fermentation. Biochem Eng J. 2013;81:146–61. Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tugtas AE. Recovery of volatile fatty acids via membrane contactor using flat membranes: experimental and theoretical analysis. Waste Manag. 2014;34:1171–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Veljković VB, Lazić ML, Rutić DJ, Stanković MZ. The effects of some inorganic salts on the ethanol fermentation of Juniper berry sugars. Acta Biotechnol. 1989;9(4):379. Scholar
  51. 51.
    Vesvikar MS, Al-Dahhan M. Flow pattern visualization in a mimic anaerobic digester using CFD. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2005;89(6):719–32. Scholar
  52. 52.
    Vogel HC, Todaro CL. Fermentation and biochemical engineering handbook: principles, process design, and equipment. 2nd ed. Westwood: Noyes Publications; 1997.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wu B. Advances in the use of CFD to characterize, design and optimize bioenergy systems. Comput Electron Agric. 2013;93:195–208. Scholar
  54. 54.
    YSI Inc./Xylem Inc. Oxygen solubility table. 2018. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
  55. 55.
    Yuan H, Zhu N. Progress in inhibition mechanisms and process control of intermediates and by-products in sewage sludge anaerobic digestion. Renew Sust Energ Rev. 2016;58:429–38. Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zhang Q, Wu D, Lin Y, Wang X, Kong H, Tanaka S. Substrate and product inhibition on yeast performance in ethanol fermentation. Energy Fuel. 2015;29(2):1019–27. Scholar
  57. 57.
    Zheng H, Zhang D, Guo K, Dong K, Xu D, Wu Z. Online recovery of nisin during fermentation coupling with foam fractionation. J Food Eng. 2015;162(2015):25–30. Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zimmerman WB, Hewakandamby BN, Tesar V, Bandulasena HCH, Omotowa OA. On the design and simulation of an airlift loop bioreactor with microbubble generation by fluidic oscillation. Food Bioprod Process. 2009;87:215–27. Scholar
  59. 59.
    Zupančič GD, Žgajnar Gotvajn A. Anaerobic treatment of pharmaceutical waste fermentation broth. Chem Biochem Eng Q. 2009;23(4):485–92. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonardo Machado da Rosa
    • 1
  • Daniela Maria Koerich
    • 2
  • Saulo Varela Della Giustina
    • 3
  1. 1.Chemical Engineering DepartmentUniversity of Blumenau (FURB)BlumenauBrazil
  2. 2.Chemical Engineering DepartmentFederal University of São Carlos (UFSCar)São CarlosBrazil
  3. 3.Water QualityCatalan Institute of Water Research (ICRA)GironaSpain

Personalised recommendations