In all fermentation processes, the equipment, raw materials, and air to be used must be provided free from contaminating organisms at all stages. Since most of the targeted biological products are conducted in pure culture, sterilization should be done prior to any operation. In sterilization process all living organisms, spores, and viruses are destroyed and it is performed by either chemical and /or physical agents. Although a number of chemical disinfectants are known, they cannot be used to sterilize nutrient media. Physical sterilization is performed through any physical process such as heating, filtration, radiation, and sonication to eliminate microorganisms. Although chemical treatment and physical sterilization methods are occasionally used in the fermentation industry, in industrial fermentation sterilization is normally carried out by heat or filtration processes. Heat sterilization is the most useful method for the sterilization of nutrient media and equipment and can be conducted in a batch or continuous process. Due to rapid advances in filtration technology, filtration is getting much more common for sterilization of fermentation media and is often used for components of nutrient solutions which are heat sensitive and would thus be denatured through the steam sterilization process.
KeywordsSterilization Heat sterilization Filter sterilization Fermentation
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