Advertisement

Pakistani Motivations

  • Siegfried O. Wolf
Chapter
Part of the Contemporary South Asian Studies book series (CSAS)

Abstract

This chapter is based on the observation that Pakistan is developing increasingly exclusive economic relations with China, using the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) as the main platform for this cooperation. Despite the apparent threat that this increased interaction with China could lead to far-reaching dependencies unfavourable to Islamabad, Pakistan’s decision-makers are treating the CPEC as an absolute priority. However, facing a multitude of severe crisis situations in all spheres of private and public life, the country is for a number of reasons incentivised to participate in major development projects such as economic corridors. As regards China, Pakistan’s interests are multi-dimensional—encompassing economic, social, political, geostrategic, and security aspects.

Bibliography

  1. Abbas, Z. (2000, November 17). Pakistan faces brain drain. BBC.Google Scholar
  2. ADB. (2017a). Asian development outlook 2017. Sustaining development through public-private partnership. Manila: Asian Development Bank (ADB).Google Scholar
  3. Adnan, M., & Fatima, B. (2016, July–December). China-Pakistan economic corridor: A road to development and its challenges. South Asian Studies (A Research Journal of South Asian Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan), 31(2), 609–624. http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/csas/PDF/15_31_2_16.pdf
  4. Ahmad, N. (2017c, June 5). Can Pakistan’s brain drain be reversed? The Express Tribune. https://tribune.com.pk/story/1427498/can-pakistans-brain-drain-reversed/
  5. Aisen, A., & Veiga, F. J (2011). How does political instability affect economic growth? IMF Working Paper WP/11/12. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund (IMF).Google Scholar
  6. Ali, S. M. (2017c, April 28). Regularising the informal sector. The Express Tribune.Google Scholar
  7. Ali, W. (2018e, February 27). A matter of inclusion. The News International.Google Scholar
  8. Ashok, S., Haq, A. U., & Mehmood, K. (2017). Modeling the shadow economy and its dynamics in case of Pakistan. Paper presented at the 33rd AGM and Conference on Redefining Prosperity Paths in Changing Global Economy: Opportunities and Challenge for Pakistan, 12–14 December 2017. Islamabad: Pakistan Institute for Development Economics (PIDE). Accessed February 7, 2019, from http://www.pide.org.pk/psde/pdf/AGM33/papers/Sumeet%20Ashok.pdf
  9. Asteriou, D., & Price, S. (2001). Political instability and economic growth: UK Time series evidence. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 48(4), 383–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bajoria, J. (2009b, April 30). Stabilizing Pakistan: Boosting its private sector. CFR Backgrounder. New York: Council on Foreign Relations (CFR).Google Scholar
  11. Barber, C. E. (2014, February 27). The Pakistan-China Corridor: A new project will give Pakistan the tools of globalization. Will it use them? The Diplomat. http://thediplomat.com/2014/02/the-pakistan-china-corridor/
  12. BTI Pakistan. (2016). BTI 2016 | Pakistan Country Report. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Transformation Index (BTI).Google Scholar
  13. BTI Pakistan. (2018). BTI 2018 | Pakistan Country Report. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Transformation Index (BTI).Google Scholar
  14. Casaca, P., & Wolf, S. O. (2017). Waging Jihad by other means Iran’s drug business and its role within the international crime-terror nexus (SADF Working Paper, No. 5). Brussels: South Asia Democratic Forum (SADF).Google Scholar
  15. CGD. (n.d.). Aid to Pakistan by the numbers. Center for Global Development (CGD). Accessed February 7, 2019, from https://www.cgdev.org/page/aid-pakistan-numbersGoogle Scholar
  16. Chang, G. G. (2014, December 10). China’s big plans for Pakistan. The National Interest.Google Scholar
  17. Cheema, N. (2016, November). Pakistan’s global image: Perception and causes. Blog. Asian Affairs Journal. Accessed February 7, 2019, from http://rsaa.org.uk/blog/2016/11/16/pakistans-global-image-perception-causes/
  18. Chen, M. A. (2007, July). Rethinking the informal economy: linkages with the formal economy and the formal regulatory environment (UN/DESA Working Paper, No. 46). New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN/DESA).Google Scholar
  19. Chen, X., Joseph, S. K., & Tariq, H. (2018). Betting big on CPEC. The European Financial Review, 61–70. Accessed February 7, 2019, from http://www.trincoll.edu/UrbanGlobal/CUGS/about/Documents/Chen%20Joseph%20Tariq%20on%20CPEC-TEFR%20FebMarch%202018.pdf
  20. Cohen, S. P. (2004). The idea of Pakistan. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  21. Dasgupta, S. (2015, May 21). Kashmir and the India-Pakistan composite dialogue process (RSIS Working Paper, No. 291). Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS).Google Scholar
  22. Dawn. (2016e, August 5). 7 facts about Pakistan’s energy crisis─and how you can help end it.Google Scholar
  23. Dorsey, J. M. (2017, February 10). Trump pressured to confront Pakistan on support for militants. Bloc. The Turbulent World of Middle East Soccer. https://mideastsoccer.blogspot.com/2017/02/trump-pressured-to-confront-pakistan-on.html
  24. EC. (2016a). The EU special incentive arrangement for sustainable development and good governance (‘GSP+’) covering the period 2014–2015 (Joint Staff Working Document. SWD (2016) 8 final). European Commission (EC).Google Scholar
  25. EC. (2017b, September 21). Mid-term evaluation of the EU’s Generalised Scheme of Preferences (GSP). Final Interim Report. Brussels: European Commission (EC), Directorate-General for Trade.Google Scholar
  26. Fazil, M. D. (2015, May 29). The China Pakistan economic corridor: Potentials and vulnerabilities. The Diplomat.Google Scholar
  27. Feige, E. L. (1990). Defining and estimating underground and informal economies: The new institutional economics approach. World Development, 18(7), 989–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ganguly, S. (2016). Deadly impasse: Indo-Pakistani relations at the Dawn of a new century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Garver, J. W. (1996, Summer). Sino-Indian rapproachement and the Sino-Pakistan Entente. Political Science Quarterly, 111(2), 323–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grainger, C. A., & Zhang, F. (2017). The impact of electricity shortages on firm productivity evidence from Pakistan (Policy Research Working Paper, No. 8130). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  31. GS. (2012, September 9). Pakistan – Infrastructure. Blog. Global Security (GS). Accessed February 7, 2019, from https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/pakistan/infras.htm
  32. Haider, M. (2015b, July 3). Operations to continue till Pakistan is terror free, says General Raheel. Dawn.Google Scholar
  33. Hoque, A. K. M. S., & Biswas, S. K. (2013, December). Problems of sick industries – Bangladesh perspective. Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 43(2), 82–91. Accessed February 12, 2019, from https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JME/article/viewFile/17831/12495
  34. Hussain, A. (1993, March). Regional economic disparity in Pakistan and a framework for regional policy. Paper presented at the Wilton Park Conference at Wiston House, Sussex, England (8–12 March). Accessed February 12, 2019, from http://www.akmalhussain.net/Papers%20Presented/data/REGIONAL%20ECONOMIC%20DISPARITY%20IN%20PAKISTAN.pdf
  35. Hussain, M. (2016, August 25). China to build biggest shipping terminal at Karachi port. Customs Today. http://www.customstoday.com.pk/china-to-built-biggestshipping-terminal-at-kpt/
  36. Hussain, M. (2017a, June). China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): Challenges and the way forward. Thesis. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School.Google Scholar
  37. ILO. (2013). Pakistan labour market update. ILO Country Office for Pakistan. International Labour Organization (ILO). Accessed February 12, 2019, from http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/%2D%2D-asia/%2D%2D-ro-bangkok/%2D%2D-ilo-islamabad/documents/publication/wcms_222834.pdf
  38. Jamal, N. (2016a, December 26). Premature de-industrialisation. Dawn.Google Scholar
  39. Jamal, H., & Khan, A. J. (2003). The changing profile of regional inequality. The Pakistan Development Review, 42(2), 113–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Johnson, K. (2015, January 23). Pakistan’s energy crunch fuels little but outrage. Foreign Policy (FP).Google Scholar
  41. Kemal, M. A., & Qasim, A. W. (2008). Precise estimates of the informal economy. Islamabad: Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE). Accessed February 12, 2019, from http://pide.org.pk/psde/pdf/AGM28/M%20Ali%20Kemal%20and%20Ahmed%20Waqar%20Qasim.pdf
  42. Khan, M. A. (1967). Friends not masters. A political autobiography. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Khan, A. (2016b, April 24). Brain drain alarming as 2.765m went abroad in five years. The Nation. Google Scholar
  44. Khan, K., & Anwar, S. (2017). Special economic zones (SEZs) and CPEC: Background, challenges and strategies. Paper presented at the 33rd AGM and conference on redefining prosperity paths in changing global economy: Opportunities and challenge for Pakistan. Islamabad: Pakistan Institute for Development Economics. Accessed February 12, 2019, from http://www.pide.org.pk/psde/pdf/AGM32/papers/Special%20Economic%20Zones.pdf
  45. Khan, A. H., & Kim, Y.-H. (1999). Foreign direct investment in Pakistan: Policy issues and operational implications (EDRC Report Series, No. 66). Manila: Asian Development Bank (ADB).Google Scholar
  46. Khan, M. T. Y., & Komei, S. (2003). Regional disparity in Pakistan’s economy: Regional econometric analysis of causes and remedies. Interdisciplinary Information Sciences, 9(2), 293–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kugelman, M. (2013, March 13). Pakistan’s energy crisis from conundrum to catastrophe? Commentary. Seattle: The National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR).Google Scholar
  48. Kugelman, M. (2017, November). The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor: What it is, how it is perceived and implications for energy geopolitics. In E. Downs et al. (Eds.), Asia’s energy security and China’s Belt and Road initiative (pp. 15–27). NBR Special Report, No. 68. Washington, DC: National Bureau of Asian Research.Google Scholar
  49. Landay, J., Mohammed, A., & Walcott, J. (2018, January 11). ‘A mad scramble’: How Trump tweet on Pakistan blindsided U.S. officials. Reuters.Google Scholar
  50. LTP. (2017). Long term plan for China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (2017–2030) [LTP]. Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Planning, Development and Reform, Islamabad & People’s Republic of China, National Development & Reform Commission, Beijing. Accessed February 13, 2019, from http://pc.gov.pk/uploads/cpec/LTP.pdf
  51. Mahmood, T. (1994). Pressler amendment and Pakistan’s security concerns. Pakistan Horizon, 47(4), 97–107.Google Scholar
  52. Maken, A. M., & Ahmed, S. S. (2017, July 30). Pakistan’s economic woes. Islamabad: Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI). Accessed February 13, 2019, from http://sdpi.org/media/media_details2908-press-2017.html
  53. Mason, S. (2016). Military budgets in India and Pakistan. Trajectories, priorities, and risks by Shane Mason. Washington, DC: Stimson Center.Google Scholar
  54. Mitra, S. K., Wolf, S. O., & Schöttli, J. (2006). A political and economic dictionary of South Asia. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. MoPDR. (2014). Pakistan 2025. One Nation – One Vision. Islamabad: Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Planning, Development & Research (MoPDR). Accessed February 13, 2019, from http://fics.seecs.edu.pk/Vision/Vision-2025/Pakistan-Vision-2025.pdf
  56. MoPDR. (2016). Multidimensional poverty in Pakistan. Islamabad: Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Planning, Development & Research (MoPDR). Accessed February 13, 2019, from http://www.pk.undp.org/content/dam/pakistan/docs/MPI/Multidimensional%20Poverty%20in%20Pakistan.pdf
  57. Mourdoukoutas, P. (2017b, September 28). CPEC lifts Pakistan up. World competitiveness rankings. Forbes.Google Scholar
  58. Nawaz, F., Azam, M. F., & Noor, N. (2015). The dilemma of Gadoon Amazai Industrial Estate, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development, 6(9), 313–327. Accessed February 13, 2019, from https://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JEDS/article/view/22642
  59. News. (2018a, Mach 29). Economists see positive impact of Chinese investment.Google Scholar
  60. Pakistan Today. (2016, December 24). General Bajwa wants a terror-free Pakistan. https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2016/12/24/general-bajwa-wants-a-terror-free-pakistan/
  61. Portes, A., & Sassen-Koob, S. (1987). Making it underground: Comparative material on the informal sector in western market economies. American Journal of Sociology, 93(1), 30–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rafi, A. E. (2015, April 29). Chinese President visit to Pakistan. IPRI Review, Islamabad Policy Research Institute (IPRI). http://www.ipripak.org/chinese-presidentvisit-to-pakistan/
  63. Rafiq, A. (2018, May 4). CPEC: A paucity of planning by Pakistan. Blog. Global Village Space. Accessed February 13, 2019, from https://www.globalvillagespace.com/cpec-a-paucity-of-planning-by-pakistan/
  64. Rafique, R. A. (2015). Energy supply chain design: Future energy security of Pakistan. A dissertation submitted to the Graduate School-Newark Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Accessed February 13, 2019, from https://rucore.libraries.rutgers.edu/rutgers-lib/47704/PDF/1/play/
  65. Rashid, A. (2017, November 26). Militants & military: Pakistan’s unholy alliance. The New York Review of Books. Accessed February 13, 2019, from http://www.nybooks.com/daily/2017/12/12/militants-and-military-pakistans-unholy-alliance/
  66. Rizvi, H. A. (1993). Pakistan and the geostrategic environment. A study of foreign policy. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Roberts, J. M., & Sattar, H. (2015, June 30). Pakistan’s economic disarray and how to fix it (HF Special Report, No. 172). Washington, DC: The Heritage Foundation (HF).Google Scholar
  68. SADF. (2017a, November 6). GSP, the mid-term review and Pakistan: The need to recalibrate (SADF Policy Brief, No. 6). South Asia Democratic Forum (SADF), Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  69. SBP. (2007). The Pakistan infrastructure report. State Bank of Pakistan (SBP). Infrastructure taskforce. Accessed February 14, 2019, from http://www.sbp.org.pk/departments/ihfd/InfrastructureTaskForceReport.pdf
  70. SDPI, & UNODC. (2011). Examining the dimensions, scale, and dynamics of the illegal economy: A study of Pakistan in the region. Islamabad: Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) & United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Country Office Pakistan. Accessed February 14, 2019, from http://sdpi.org/publications/files/Examining%20the%20dimentions%20scale%20and%20dynamics%20of%20illegal%20economy.pdf
  71. Shabbir, M. (2012). Pakistan’s image dilemma: Quest for remedial action. ISSRA Papers, IV(2), 29–58. Islamabad: Institute for Strategic Studies, Research & Analysis (ISSRA), National Defence University. Accessed February 14, 2019, from http://www.ndu.edu.pk/issra/issra_pub/articles/issra-paper/ISSRA_Papers_Vol4_IssueI_2012/02-Pakistan’s-Image-Dilemma-Shabbir.pdf
  72. Shahzad, I. (2015, February 15). CPEC – Moving beyond the route controversy. The News Tribe. Accessed February 14, 2019, from http://www.thenewstribe.com/2015/02/15/cpec-moving-beyond-the-route-controversy/
  73. Shaikh, F. (2009). Making sense of Pakistan. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Shams, S. (2015b, April 20). China expands influence in ‘economic colony’ Pakistan. Deutsche Welle.Google Scholar
  75. Sherani, S. (2013, February 22). The informal economy. Dawn.Google Scholar
  76. Siddiqi, A. H. (1981). Regional inequality in the development of Pakistan. GeoJournal, 5(1), 17–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Srivastava, P. (2011, May). Regional corridors development in regional cooperation (ADB Economic Working Paper Series, 258). Manila: Asian Development Bank (ADB).Google Scholar
  78. Srivastava, R., & Pandey, A. K. (2017). Internal and international migration in South Asia: Drivers, interlinkage and policy issues (Discussion Paper). New Delhi: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Accessed February 14, 2019, from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002494/249459E.pdf
  79. UNDP. (2016, June 20). Pakistan’s new poverty index reveals that 4 out of 10 Pakistanis live in multidimensional poverty. Press Release. United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Accessed February 14, 2019, from http://www.pk.undp.org/content/pakistan/en/home/presscenter/pressreleases/2016/06/20/pakistan-s-new-poverty-index-reveals-that-4-out-of-10-pakistanis-live-in-multidimensional-poverty.html
  80. ValueWalk. (2017, September 18). Russia’s position on China-Pakistan’s CPEC. Blog. Value Walk, Guest Post. Accessed February 14, 2019, from https://www.valuewalk.com/2017/09/russias-position-cpec/
  81. Vandewalle, L. (2015). Pakistan and China: ‘Iron brothers’ forever? Brussels: Directorate General for External Policies, Policy Department. Accessed February 14, 2019, from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2015/549052/EXPO_IDA(2015)549052_EN.pdf
  82. VOA. (2016, October 12). Fighting the global illegal economy. Editorial. Voice of America (VoA) Google Scholar
  83. Wasim, S., & Munir, K. (2017, October 30). Regional disparity and decentralization in Pakistan: A decomposition analysis (MPRA Paper, No. 83444). Munich Personal RePEc Archive (MPRA). Accessed February 14, 2019, from https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/83444/1/MPRA_paper_83444.pdf
  84. Wolf, S. O. (2014b, June 20). Just another carte blanche? EU GSP plus status and human rights in Pakistan (PRSU Briefing Paper No. 69). Durham: Durham University, Pakistan Security Research Unit (PSRU). Accessed February 14, 2019, from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2839387
  85. Wolf, S. O. (2016d, September 13). China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, civil-military relations and democracy in Pakistan (SADF Working Paper No. 2). Brussels: South Asia Democratic Forum (SADF).Google Scholar
  86. Wolf, S. O. (2017a, September 27). Genocide, exodus and exploitation for jihad: The urgent need to address the Rohingya crisis (SADF Working Paper, No. 6). Brussels: South Asia Democratic Forum (SADF).Google Scholar
  87. Wolf, S. O. (2017b, August 23). US President Donald Trump’s new Afghanistan strategy in context (SADF Comment, Vol. 100). Brussels: South Asia Democratic Forum (SADF).Google Scholar
  88. World Bank. (2007). Pakistan: Infrastructure implementation capacity assessment. Washington, DC: The World Bank Group (WB).Google Scholar
  89. World Bank. 2017. Pakistan development update managing risks for sustained growth. Islamabad: World Bank Group (WB).Google Scholar
  90. Zaidi, S. S. (2018, June 26). Reality versus myth. Text of speech at CPEC 2018 Summit, 23 & 24 April 2018, CPEC 2018: Supplement. Reprinted in Dawn.Google Scholar
  91. Ziauddin, M. (2017, November 9). Towards an inclusive economy. Pakistan Observer.Google Scholar
  92. Zingel, W.-P. (2015). China’s Pakistan option: Economic and social implications of an ‘all-weather relationship’. IIC Quarterly, 42, 2.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Siegfried O. Wolf
    • 1
  1. 1.South Asia Democratic Forum (SADF)BrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations