Inducing Hemorrhagic Transformation Following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion via Acute Hyperglycemia in Rats

  • Devin W. McBride
  • Derek Nowrangi
  • Wing Mann Ho
  • Jiping Tang
  • John H. ZhangEmail author
Part of the Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research book series (SSTSR)


Herein, the model for inducing hemorrhagic transformation following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in acutely hyperglycemic rats is presented. Fifty percent dextrose, administered 15 min before MCAO, causes reproducible hemorrhagic transformation at a rate of 100% in rats. This chapter details the procedure for creating this model, as well as the outcomes, evaluation, limitations, and alternatives.


Middle cerebral artery occlusion Hemorrhagic transformation Hyperglycemia Rat 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Devin W. McBride
    • 1
  • Derek Nowrangi
    • 1
  • Wing Mann Ho
    • 2
  • Jiping Tang
    • 1
  • John H. Zhang
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Physiology & PharmacologyLoma Linda University School of MedicineLoma LindaUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurosurgeryMedical University InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria
  3. 3.Department of AnesthesiologyLoma Linda University School of MedicineLoma LindaUSA

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