Advertisement

Emotional Intelligence and Life Satisfaction in Adulthood

  • Lisete dos Santos Mendes MónicoEmail author
  • Patrícia Isabel Valente dos Santos
  • Carla Maria Santos de Carvalho
  • Joana Íris Lopes Parreira
  • Paulo Jorge dos Santos Costa
  • Pedro Miguel Dinis Parreira
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 1016)

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Life Satisfaction (LS) (18 to 60 years) as a repertoire of acquired psychological competences and intelligent adaptive behavior through the promotion of personal success, happiness and general well-being and explore their contributions to LS. Three research hypotheses were formulated for young adulthood (18–39 years) and advanced adulthood (40–60 years), aiming at comparing the magnitude of these two life phases: (H1) EI and LS are positively related; (H2) EI and self-esteem are positively related; and, (H3) EI is a predictor of LS. The sample study is composed of 200 participants aged 18–60 years. The results did not indicate differences between EI in young and elderly adults, although the latter were significantly less satisfied with their life and reported going through a less favorable life period. The three hypotheses found statistical support, with greater magnitude in advanced adulthood. For young adults, EI accounted for 15% of their overall well-being and for older adults this proportion increased to 43%.

Keywords

Emotional intelligence Life satisfaction Adulthood 

References

  1. 1.
    Mayer, J., Roberts, R., Barsade, S.: Human abilities: emotional intelligence. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 59, 507–536 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Salovey, P., Mayer, J.: Emotional intelligence. Imagin. Cogn. Pers. 9, 185–211 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gardner, H.: Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Basic Books, New York (1983)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brackett, M., Rivers, S., Salovey, P.: Emotional intelligence: implications for personal, social, academic, and workplace success. Soc. Pers. Psychol. Compass 5, 88–103 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bar-On, R.: The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI). Psicothema 18, 13–25 (2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goleman, D.: Emotional Intelligence. Bantam, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kafetsios, K., Maridaki-Kassotaki, A., Zammuner, V., Zampetakis, L., Vouzas, F.: Emotional intelligence abilities and traits in different career paths. J. Career Assess. 17, 367–383 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Petrides, K., Furnham, A.: Trait emotional intelligence: psychometric investigation with reference to established trait taxonomies. Eur. J. Pers. 15, 425–448 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Petrides, K., Furnham, A.: Trait emotional intelligence: Behavioural validation in two studies of emotion recognition and reactivity to mood induction. Eur. J. Pers. 17, 39–57 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Van Rooy, D., Viswesvaran, C.: Emotional intelligence: A meta-analytic investigation of predictive validity and nomological net. J. Vocat. Behav. 65, 71–95 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Palmer, B., Gignac, G., Ekermans, G., Stough, C.: A comprehensive framework for emotional intelligence. In: Emerling, R., Shanwal, V., Mandal, M. (eds.) Emotional Intelligence: Theoretical and Cultural Perspectives, pp. 17–38. Nova Science Publishers, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ciarrochi, J., Chan, A., Caputi, P.: A critical evaluation of the emotional intelligence concept. Pers. Individ. Differ. 28, 539–561 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Novo, R.: Para além da eudaimonia: O Bem-estar psicológico em mulheres na idade adulta avançada. Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian: Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Lisboa (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Joia, L.C., Ruiz, T., Donalisio, M.R.: Condições Associadas ao Grau de Satisfação com a Vida entre a População de Idosos. Rev. Saúde Pública 41, 131–138 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mookherjee, H.N.: Effects of religiosity and selected variables on the perception of well-being. J. Soc. Psychol. 134, 403–405 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moberg, D.O.: Subjective measures of spiritual well-being. Rev. Relig. Res. 25, 351–359 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pavot, W., Diener, E.: Review of the satisfaction with life scale. Psychol. Assess. 2, 164–172 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pavot, W., Diener, E.: The satisfaction with life scale and emerging construct of life satisfaction. J. Posit. Psychol. 3, 137–152 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Carvalho, V., Guerrero, E., Chambel, M.: Emotional intelligence and health students’ well-being: a two-wave study with students of medicine, physiotherapy and nursing. Nurse Educ. Today 63, 35–42 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Baltes, P.: Theoretical propositions of life-span developmental psychology: on the dynamics between growth and decline. Dev. Psychol. 23, 611–626 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Levinson, D.: The seasons of a man’s life. Alfred A. Knoff, New York (1997)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Marchand, H.: Temas de desenvolvimento psicológico do adulto. Editora Quarteto, Coimbra (2005)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Craig, G.J.: Human development. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River (1996)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rego, A., Sousa, F., Cunha, M.P., Correia, A., Saur-Amaral, I.: Leader self-reported emotional intelligence and perceived employee creativity: Na exploratory study. Creat. Innov. Manag. 16, 250–264 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Alferes, V.: Methods of randomization in experimental design. SAGE, Los Angeles (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Andrews, F., Kem, L., Davidson, T., O’Malley, P., Rodgers, W.: A guide for selecting statistical techniques for analyzing social science data. Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor (2000)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fink, A.: How to Ask Survey Questions. SAGE, London (1995)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Howell, D.C.: Statistics Methods for Psychology. Duxbury Press, Belmont (1997)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pestana, M.H., Gageiro, J.N.: Análise de dados para ciências sociais: A complementaridade do SPSS, 2nd edn. Edições Sílabo, Lisboa (2000)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schumacker, R.E., Lomax, R.G.: A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling. In: Hatcher, L. (ed.) A Step-By-Step Approach to Using the SAS System for Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modelling. SAS Institute, Cary NC. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah (1996)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bentler, P., Weeks, G.: Linear structural equations with latent variables. Psychometria 45, 289–308 (1980)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Schumacker, R.E., Lomax, R.G.: A Beginner’s Guide to Structural Equation Modeling. Routledge Academic, New York (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hamarat, E., Thompson, D., Zabrucky, K., Steele, D., Matheny, K., Aysan, F.: Perceived stress and coping resource availability as predictors of life satisfaction in young, middle-aged, and older adults. Exp. Aging Res. 27, 181–196 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Steger, M.F., Oishi, S., Kashdan, T.B.: Meaning in life across the life span: levels and correlates of meaning in life from emerging adulthood to older adulthood. J. Posit. Psychol. 4, 43–52 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Carstensen, L., Pasupathi, M., Mayr, U., Nesselroade, J.: Emotional experience in everyday life across the adult life span. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 79, 644–655 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gross, J., Carstensen, L., Pasupathi, M., Tsai, J., Skorpen, C., Hsu, A.: Emotion and aging: experience, expression, and control. Psychol. Aging 12, 590–599 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mroczek, D., Almeida, D.: The effect of daily stress, personality, and age on daily negative affect. J. Pers. 72, 355–378 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Carstensen, L., et al.: Emotional experience improves with age: evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling. Psychol. Aging 26, 21–33 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Charles, S., Reynolds, C., Gatz, M.: Age-related differences and change in positive and negative affect over 23 years. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 80, 136–151 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ramsey, M., Gentzler, A.: Age differences in subjective well-being across adulthood: the roles of savoring and future time perspective. Int. J. Aging Hum. Dev. 78, 3–22 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dias, M.A.R.: Qualidade de Vida Relacionada com a Saúde e Satisfação com a Vida: Um Estudo em indivíduos amputados do membro inferior (2006)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Diener, E., Suh, E., Lucas, R., Smith, H.: Subjective well-being: three decades of progress. Psychol. Bull. 125, 276–302 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Silva, N., Carvalho, C., Lourenço, P.: A emoção na organização: A complementaridade da inteligência emocional e do trabalho emocional. In: Carvalho, C., Lourenço, P., Peralta, C. (eds.) Emoção nas Organizações, pp. 11–28. PsicoSoma, Viseu (2012)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mayer, J., Salovey, P.: What is emotional intelligence? In: Salovey, P., Sluyter, D.J. (eds.) Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence: Educational Implications, pp. 3–34. Basic Books, New York (1997)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Goleman, D.: Emotional Intelligence: Issues in Paradigm Building. In: Cherniss, C., Goleman, D. (eds.) The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace, pp. 13–28. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco (2001)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Goleman, D.: An EI-based theory of performance. In: Cherniss, C., Goleman, D. (eds.) The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace, pp. 27–44. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco (2001)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Goleman, D.: Working with Emotional Intelligence. Bantam, New York (1998)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mónico, L.S., Santos, P.I., Lima, L.N.: The implications of emotional intelligence in self-esteem. Rev. Saúde Pública 48, 264 (2014)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Franca, L.A., Mónico, L.S.: The role of emotional intelligence in job satisfaction of individuals. Int. J. Dev. Educ. Psychol. 1(7), 203–212 (2014)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mónico, L.S., Mellão, N., Nobre-Lima, L., Parreira, P., Carvalho, C.: Emotional intelligence and psychological capital: What is the role of workplace spirituality? Rev. Port. Enferm. Saúde Mental 3, 45–50 (2016)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mellão, N., Mónico, L.S.: The relation between emotional intelligence and psychological capital of employees. Int. J. Dev. Educ. Psychol. 2(1), 545–550 (2013)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mónico, L.S., Lucas, H.M., Jordão, E.G.: Emotional and behavioural problems of adolescents in a school context. J. Psychol. Soc. Behav. Res. 2(1), 12–19 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lucas, H.M., Mónico, L.S.: Emotional intelligence and the protection of organizational stress. Int. J. Dev. Educ. Psychol. 2(1), 551–560 (2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Psychology and Education SciencesUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.The Health Sciences Research Unit: NursingCoimbraPortugal
  3. 3.Nursing School of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  4. 4.Psychology and Life Sciences - Universidade LusófonaLisboaPortugal

Personalised recommendations