Advertisement

Geological Evolution of the Himalayan Mountains

  • A. K. Jain
Chapter
  • 106 Downloads
Part of the Springer Geology book series (SPRINGERGEOL)

Abstract

The Indian continental lithospheric (ICL) Plate did not collide with Asia, initially due to the presence of vast Neo-Tethyan Ocean. Instead, the ICL first subducted beneath the Trans-Himalayan Ladakh magmatic arc at ~58 Ma to produce the ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphosed Tso Morari Crystallines (TMC). The Himalaya first emerged from this deeply subducted terrane between 53 and 50 Ma, followed by sequential subduction and imbrications of the ICL. It was repeatedly metamorphosed during ~45–35 and ~25–15 Ma and had undergone episodic exhumation during rise of the Himalaya since 45 Ma, whose erosion brought huge sediments in the Cenozoic Himalayan foreland basin.

Sub-horizontal subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Himalaya caused accretion/imbrication of the upper crust by ongoing northward episodic push, which caused southward-directed thrusts. True signature of continental collision can only be identified along the Bangong-Nujiang Suture (BNS) Zone in Central Tibet with opposite downward convergence of the India and Asian Plates.

Keywords

India-Asia convergence Himalaya Geometry Indian Plate Continental subduction vs. collision 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This chapter has emerged from many field expeditions in Karakoram, Ladakh and adjoining regions, which were funded by Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi. Sandeep Singh from the IIT Roorkee has been an inspiration to explore more along with many other students. Thanks are due to Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, for the awards of Senior and Honorary Scientist Schemes and to Dr. N. Gopikrishnan, Director, CSIR-Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee, for the facilities.

Discussions with V.C. Thakur and P.K. Mukherjee (Dehradun) on tectonics of Ladakh and Md. Israil and V.K. Gahlaut on geophysical aspects were extremely useful in clearing many doubts. O.N. Bhargava has been instrumental in highlighting many shortcomings in this write-up and also contributing to the geology of the Tethys.

Thanks are due to S.K. Tandon and Neal Gupta for the invitation to write this chapter and for providing critical comments on this chapter. The author appreciates gesture of Md Israil and B.R. Arora for providing me the original drawings of Fig. 10.10.

References

  1. Aitchison JC, Ali JR, Davis AM (2007) When and where did India and Asia collide? J Geophys Res 112:B05423. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JB004706
  2. Argand E (1924) La tectoniquedel’ Asie. Proc 13th Int Geol Cong 7:170–372Google Scholar
  3. Arora BR, Unsworth MJ, Rawat G (2007) Deep resistivity structure of the northwest Indian Himalaya and its tectonic implications. Geophys Res Lett 34:L04307.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL029165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beaumont C, Jamieson RA, Nguyen MH, Lee B (2001) Himalayan tectonics explained by extrusion of a low-viscosity crustal channel coupled to focused surface denudation. Nature 414:738–742.  https://doi.org/10.1038/414738aCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhargava ON (2008) An updated introduction to the Spiti geology. J Palaeont Soc India 53(2):93–129Google Scholar
  6. Bhargava ON, Srikantia SV (2014) Geology and age of metamorphism of the Jutogh and Vaikrita Thrust Sheets, Himachal Himalaya. Himalayan Geol 35(1):1–15Google Scholar
  7. Bhatia SB, Bhargava ON (2006) Biochronological continuity of the Paleocene sediments of the Himalayan Foreland Basin: paleontological and other evidences. J Asian Earth Sci 26:477–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bouilhol P, Jagoutz O, Hanchar JM, Dudas FO (2013) Dating the India-Eurasia collision through arc magmatic records. Earth Planet Sci Lett 366:163–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burchfiel BC, Royden LH (1985) North-south extension within the convergent Himalayan region. Geology 13:679–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Caldwell WB, Klemperer SL, Lawrence JF, Rai SS, Ashish (2013) Characterizing the Main Himalayan Thrust in the Garhwal Himalaya, India with receiver function CCP stacking. Earth Planet Sci Lett 367:15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carosi R, Montomoli C, Iaccarino S (2018) 20 years of geological mapping of the metamorphic core across Central and Eastern Himalayas. Earth-Sci Rev 177:124–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chemenda AI, Burg JP, Mattauer M (2000) Evolutionary model of the Himalaya–Tibet system: geopoem based on new modeling, geological and geophysical data. Earth Planet Sci Lett 174:397–409Google Scholar
  13. Clift PD (2017) Cenozoic sedimentary records of climate-tectonic coupling in the Western Himalaya. Prog Earth Planet Sci 4:39.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40645-017-0151-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Copley A, Avouac JP, Royer JY (2010) India-Asia collision and the Cenozoic slowdown of the Indian plate: implications for the forces driving plate motions. J Geophys Res 95:B03410.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JB006634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. de Sigoyer J, Chavagnac V, Blichert-Toft J, Villa IM, Luais B, Guillot S, Cosca M, Mascle G (2000) Dating the Indian continental subduction and collisional thickening in the northwest Himalaya: multichronology of the Tso Morari eclogites. Geology 28:487–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dewey JF, Bird JM (1970) Mountain belts and the new global tectonics. J Geophys Res 75:2625–2647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dupont-Nivet G, van Hinsbergen DJJ, Torsvik TH (2010) Persistently low Asian paleolatitudes: implications for the India-Asia collision history. Tectonics 29:TC5016.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008TC002437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Foster G, Kinny P, Vance D, Prince C, Harris N (2000) The significance of monazite U-Th-Pb age data in metamorphic assemblage; a combined study of monazite and garnet chronometry. Earth Planet Sci Lett 181:327–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Garzanti E, van Haver T (1988) The Indus clastics: forearc basin sedimentation in the Ladakh Himalaya (India). Sediment Geol 59:237–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Garzanti E, Baud A, Mascle G (1987) Sedimentary record of the northward flight of India and its collision with Eurasia (Ladakh Himalaya, India). Geodynam Acta 1:297–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Godin L, Grujic D, Law RD, Searle MP (2006) Channel flow, ductile extrusion and exhumation in continental collision zones: an introduction. In: Law RD, Searle MP, Godin L (eds) Channel flow, ductile extrusion and exhumation in continental collision zones, Geol Soc Spec Publ, vol 268. Geological Society, London, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  22. Gokarn SG, Gupta G, Rao CK, Selvaraj CB (2002) Electrical structure across the Indus Tsangpo suture and Shyok suture zones in NW Himalaya using magnetotelluric studies. Geophys Res Lett 29(8):1251.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GL014325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grujic D (2006) Channel flow and continental collision tectonics. In: Law RD, Searle MP, Godin L (eds) Channel flow, ductile extrusion and exhumation in continental collision zones, Geol Soc Spec Publ, vol 268. Geological Society, London, pp 25–37Google Scholar
  24. Guillot S, de Sigoyer J, Lardeaux JM, Mascle G (1997) Eclogitic metasediments from the Tso Morari area (Ladakh, Himalaya): evidence for continental subduction during India-Asia convergence. Contrib Mineral Petrol 128:197–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Guillot S, Mahéo G, de Sigoyer J, Hattori KH, Pêcher A (2008) Tethyan and Indian subduction viewed from the Himalayan high-to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks. Tectonophysics 451:225–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Guo X, Li W, Gao R, Xu X, Li H, Huang X, Ye Z, Lu Z, Klemper SL (2017) Nonuniform subduction of the Indian crust beneath the Himalayas. Sci Rep 7:12497.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-12908-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Heim A, Gansser A (1939) Central Himalaya: geological observations of the Swiss expedition, Mem de la Société Helvetique des Sci Naturelles, vol 73. Gebrüder Fretz, Zürich. 245pGoogle Scholar
  28. Hodges KV (2000) Tectonics of the Himalaya and southern Tibet from two perspectives. Geol Soc Am Bull 92:324–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hofmann M, Linnemann U, Rai V, Becker S, Gärtner A, Sagawe A (2011) The India and South China cratons at the margin of Rodinia—Synchronous Neoproterozoic magmatism revealed by LA-ICP-MS zircon analyses. Lithos 123:176–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Honegger K, Dietrich V, Frank W, Gansser A, Thoni M, Trommsdorff V (1982) Magmatism and metamorphism in the Ladakh Himalaya the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone. Earth Planet Sci Lett 60:253–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Israil M, Tyagi DK, Gupta PK, Niwas S (2008) Magnetotelluric investigations for imaging electrical structure of Garhwal Himalayan corridor, Uttarakhand, India. J Earth Syst Sci 97:189–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jain AK (2014) When did India-Asia collide and make the Himalaya? Curr Sci 106(2):254–266Google Scholar
  33. Jain AK, Manickavasagam RM (1993) Inverted metamorphism in the intra-continental ductile shear zone during Himalayan collision tectonics. Geology 21:407–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jain AK, Singh S (2008) Tectonics of the southern Asian Plate margin along the Karakoram Shear Zone: constraints from field observations and U-Pb SHRIMP ages. Tectonophysics 451(1–4):186–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jain AK, Singh S (2009) Geology and tectonics of the southeastern Ladakh and Karakoram. Geological Society of India, Bangalore, India. 179pGoogle Scholar
  36. Jain AK, Kumar D, Singh S, Kumar A, Lal N (2000) Timing, quantification and tectonic modeling of Pliocene Quaternary movements in the NW Himalaya: evidences from fission track dating. Earth Planet Sci Lett 179:437–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jain AK, Singh S, Manickavasagam RM (2002) Himalayan collision tectonics. Gondwana Res Group Mem 7:94Google Scholar
  38. Jain AK, Singh S, Manickavasagam RM, Joshi M, Verma PK (2003) HIMPROBE Programme: integrated studies on geology, petrology, geochronology and geophysics of the Trans-Himalaya and Karakoram. Mem Geol Soc India 53:1–56Google Scholar
  39. Jain AK, Manickavasagam RM, Singh S, Mukherjee S (2005) Himalayan collision zone: new perspectives - its tectonic evolution in a combined ductile shear zone and channel flow model. Himal Geol 26(1):1–18Google Scholar
  40. Jain AK, Lal N, Sulemani B, Awasthi AK, Singh S, Kumar R, Kumar D (2009) Detrital-zircon fission track geochronology of the Lower Cenozoic sediments, NW Himalayan foreland basin: clues for exhumation and denudation of the Himalaya during India-Asia collision. Geol Soc Am Bull 121:519–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jain AK (2017) Continental subduction in the NW-Himalaya and Trans-Himalaya. Ital J Geosci 136 (1):89–102,  https://doi.org/10.3301/IJG.2015.43
  42. Jain AK, Shrestha M, Seth P, Kanyal L, Carosi R, Montomoli C, Iaccarino S, Mukherjee PK (2014) The Higher Himalayan Crystallines, Alaknanda–Dhauli Ganga Valleys, Garhwal Himalaya, India. In: Montomoli C, Carosi R, Law RD, Singh S, Rai SM (eds) Geological field trips in the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tibet. J Virtual Expl, Electr Edit 47 paper 8, ISSN 1441–8142Google Scholar
  43. Kohn MJ (2014) Himalayan metamorphism and its tectonic implications. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 42:381–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kumar A, Lal N, Jain AK, Sorkhabi RB (1995) Late Cenozoic-Quaternary thermotectonic history of Higher Himalayan Crystallines (HHC) in Kishtwar-Padar-Zanskar region, NW Himalaya: evidence from fission track ages. J Geol Soc India 45:375–391Google Scholar
  45. Kumar R, Ghosh SK, Sangode SJ (2009) Sedimentary architecture of Late Cenozoic Himalayan Foreland Basin fill: an overview. Mem Geol Soc India 78:245–280Google Scholar
  46. Kumar R, Jain AK, Lal N, Singh S (2018) Early-Middle Eocene exhumation of the Trans-Himalayan Ladakh Batholith, and the India-Asia convergence. Curr Sci 113:1090–1098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Leech ML, Singh S, Jain AK, Klemperer SL, Manickavasagam RM (2005) Early, steep subduction of India beneath Asia required by early UHP metamorphism. Earth Planet Sci Lett 234:83–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Leech ML, Singh S, Jain AK (2007) Continuous metamorphic zircon growth and interpretation of U-Pb SHRIMP dating: an example from the Western Himalaya. Int Geol Rev 49:313–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Liang X, Sandvola E, Chen YJ, Hearn T, Ni J, Klemperer S, Shen Y, Tilmann F (2012) A complex Tibetan upper mantle: a fragmented Indian slab and no south-verging subduction of Eurasian lithosphere. Earth Planet Sci Lett 333–334:101–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Maheo G, Bertrand H, Guillot S, Villa IM, Keller F, Capiez P (2004) The south Ladakh ophiolites (NW Himalaya, India): an intra-oceanic tholeiitic origin with implication for the closure of the Neo-Tethys. Chem Geol 203:273–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mandal S, Robinson DM, Khanal S, Das O (2015) Redefining the tectonostratigraphic and structural architecture of the Almora klippe and the Ramgarh-Munsiari Thrust sheet in NW India. In: Mukherjee S, Carosi R, van der Beek PA, Mukherjee BK, Robinson DM (eds) Tectonics of the Himalaya, Geol Soc London Spec Publ, vol 412. Geological Society, London, pp 247–269Google Scholar
  52. Mandal S, Robinson DM, Kohn MJ, Khanal S, Das O, Bose S (2016) Zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of the Askot klippe, Kumaun, northwest India: implications for Paleoproterozoic tectonics, basin evolution and associated metallogeny of the northern Indian cratonic margin. Tectonics 35:965–982.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015TC004064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Miglani R, Shahrukh M, Israil M, Gupta PK, Varsheney SK, Sokolova E (2014) Geoelectric structure estimated from magnetotelluric data from Uttarakhand Himalaya, India. J Earth Syst Sci 123(8):907–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Myrow PM, Hughes NC, Paulsen TS, Williams IS, Parcha SK, Thompson KR, Bowring SA, Peng S-C, Ahluwalia AD (2003) Integrated tectonostratigraphic reconstruction of the Himalaya and implications for its tectonic reconstruction. Earth Planet Sci Lett 212:433–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nábĕlek J, Hetenyi G, Vergne J, Sapkota S, Kafle B, Jiang M, Su H, Chen J, Huang B-S, The HI-CLIMB Team (2009) Underplating in the Himalaya-Tibet collision zone revealed by the Hi-CLIMB experiment. Science 325:1371–1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Najman Y (2006) The detrital record of orogenesis: a review of approaches and techniques used in the Himalayan sedimentary basins. Earth-Sci Rev 74(1–2):1–72Google Scholar
  57. Najman Y, Bickle M, Chapman H (2000) Early Himalayan exhumation: isotopic constraints from the Indian foreland basin. Terra Nova 12:28–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Najman Y, Appel E, Boudagher-Fadel M, Bown P, Carter A, Garzanti E, Godin L, Han JT, Liebke U, Oliver G, Parrish R, Vezzoli G (2010) Timing of India-Asia collision: geological, biostratigraphic, and palaeomagnetic constraints. J Geophys Res 95:B12416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nelson KD, Zhao W, Brown LD, Indepth Team (1996) Partially molten middle crust beneath southern Tibet: synthesis of Project INDEPTH results. Science 274:1684–1688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ni JF, Barazangi M (1984) Seismotectonics of the Himalayan collision zone: geometry of the underthrusting Indian plate beneath the Himalaya. J Geophys Res 89:947–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. O’Brien PJ, Zotov N, Law R, Khan MA, Jan MQ (2001) Coesite in Himalayan eclogite and implications for models of India-Asia collision. Geology 29(5):435–438Google Scholar
  62. Patel RC, Carter A (2009) Exhumation history of the Higher Himalayan Crystalline along Dhauliganga-Goriganga river valleys, NW India: new constraints from fission-track analysis. Tectonics 28:TC3004.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008TC002373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Patel RC, Adlakha V, Lal N, Singh P, Kumar Y (2009) Spatiotemporal variation in exhumation of the Crystallines in the NW-Himalaya, India: constraints from Fission Track dating analysis. Tectonophysics 504(1–4):1–13Google Scholar
  64. Powell CMA, Conaghan PJ (1973) Plate tectonics and the Himalayas. Earth Planet Sci Lett 20(1):1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(73)90134-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Powell CMA, Conaghan PJ (1975) Tectonic models of the Tibetan plateau. Geology 3:727–731.  https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1975)3<727:TMOTTP>2.0.CO;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rahaman W, Singh SK, Sinha R, Tandon SK (2009) Climate control on erosion distribution over the Himalaya during the past ~100 ka. Geology 37(6):559–562.  https://doi.org/10.1130/G25425A.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rai SS, Priestley K, Gaur VK, Mitra S, Singh MP, Searle MP (2006) Configuration of the Indian Moho beneath the NW Himalaya. Geophys Res Lett 33:L15308.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL026076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rawat G, Arora BR, Gupta PK (2014) Electrical resistivity cross-section across the Garhwal Himalaya: proxy to fluid-seismicity linkage. Tectonophysics 637:68–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rolland Y, Pêcher A, Picard C (2000) Middle Cretaceous back-arc formation and arc evolution along the Asian margin: the Shyok Suture Zone in northern Ladakh NW Himalaya. Tectonophysics 325:145–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rolland Y, Picard C, Pêcher A, Lapierre H, Bosch D, Keller F (2002) The cretaceous Ladakh arc of NW Himalaya—slab melting and melt-mantle interaction during fast northward drift of Indian Plate. Chem Geol 182:139–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Schlup M, Carter A, Cosca M, Steck A (2003) Exhumation history of eastern Ladakh revealed by 40Ar/39Ar and fission track ages: the Indus river-Tso Morari transect, NW Himalaya. J Geol Soc Lond 160:385–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sciunnach D, Garzanti E (2012) Subsidence history of the Tethys Himalaya. Earth-Sci Rev 111:179–198Google Scholar
  73. Searle MP, Windley BF, Coward MP, Cooper DJW, Rex AJ, Rex D, Tingdong L, Xuchang X, Jan MQ, Thakur VC, Kumar S (1987) The closing of the Tethys and the tectonics of the Himalaya. Geol Soc Am Bull 98:678–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Seeber L, Armbruster JG, Quittmeyer R (1981) Seismicity and continental subduction in the Himalayan Arc. In: Gupta HK, Delany FM (eds) Zagros, Hindu Kush, Himalaya geodynamic evolution, Geodynamic Series, vol 4. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp 215–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Singh IB (1999) Tectonic control on sedimentation in Ganga Plain Foreland Basin: constraints on the Siwalik sedimentation models. In: Jain AK, Manickavasagam RM (eds) Geodynamics of the NW Himalaya, Gondwana Res Group Mem, vol 6. Gondwana Research Group, Gondwana, pp 3–37Google Scholar
  76. Sorkhabi RB, Jain AK, Itaya T, Fukui S, Lal N, Kumar A (1997) Cooling age record of domal uplift in the core of the Higher Himalayan Crystallines (HHC) southwest Zanskar, India. Proc Indian Acad Sci Earth Planet Sci 106:169–179Google Scholar
  77. Sorkhabi RB, Stump E, Foland K, Jain AK (1999a) Tectonics and cooling history of the Garhwal Higher Himalaya (Bhagirathi Valley): constraints from thermochronological data. In: Jain AK, Manickavasagam RM (eds) Geodynamics of the NW Himalaya, Gondwana Res Group Mem, vol 6. Gondwana Research Group, Gondwana, pp 217–235Google Scholar
  78. Sorkhabi RB, Valdiya KS, Arita K (1999b) Cenozoic uplift of the Himalayan Orogen: chronologic and kinematic patterns. In: Jain AK, Manickavasagam RM (eds) Geodynamics of the NW Himalaya, Gondwana Res Group Mem, vol 6. Gondwana Research Group, Gondwana, pp 189–206Google Scholar
  79. Srikantia SV, Bhargava ON (1998) Geology of Himachal Pradesh, Mem Geol Soc India. Geological Society of India, Bangalore. 406pGoogle Scholar
  80. Stampfli GM, Borel GD (2002) A plate tectonic model for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic constrained by dynamic plate boundaries and restored synthetic oceanic isochrons. Earth Planet Sci Lett 196(1):17–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-821X(01)00588-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Stŭbner K, Grujic D, Dunkl I, Thiede R, Eugster P (2018) Pliocene episodic exhumation and the significance of the Munsiari thrust in the northwestern Himalaya. Earth Planet Sci Lett 481:273–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tandon SK (1991) The Himalayan foreland: focus on Siwalik basin. In: Tandon SK, Pant CC, Casshyap SM (eds) Sedimentary basins of India. Gyanodaya Prakashk, Nainital, pp 171–201Google Scholar
  83. Tapponier P, Peltzer G, Le Dain AY, Armijo R, Cobbing P (1982) Propagating extrusion tectonics in Asia: new insight from simple experiments with plasticene. Geology 10:69–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Thakur VC (1993) Geology of the Western Himalaya. Pergamon Press, Oxford. 355pGoogle Scholar
  85. Thiede RC, Ehlers TA (2013) Large spatial and temporal variations in Himalayan denudation. Earth Planet Sci Lett 371–372:278–293Google Scholar
  86. Thiede RC, Ehlers TA, Bookhagen B, Strecker MR (2009) Erosional variability along the northwest Himalaya. J Geophys Res 114:F1.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JF001010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Valdiya KS (1980) Geology of the Kumuan Lesser Himalaya. Wadia Inst Himalayan Geol, Dehradun, p 291pGoogle Scholar
  88. Valdiya KS (2016) The making of India geodynamic evolution. Springer, Switzerland, p 924pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. van Hinsbergen DJJ, Lippert PC, Dupont-Nivet G, McQuarrie N, Doubrovine PV, Spakman W, Torsvik TH (2012) Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:7659–7664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Webb AAG, An Y, Harrison TM, Julien C, Burgess WP (2007) The leading edge of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline complex revealed in the NW Indian Himalaya: Implications for the evolution of the Himalayan orogen. Geology 35:955–958.  https://doi.org/10.1130/G23931A.1
  91. Webb AAG, Guo H, Clift PD, Husson L, Müller T, Costantino D, Yin A, Xu ZC, Qin W (2017) The Himalaya in 3D: slab dynamics controlled mountain building and monsoon intensification. Lithosphere 9:L636.1.  https://doi.org/10.1130/L636.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Winslow DM, Zeitler PK, Chamberlain CP, Williams IS (1996) Geochronologic constraints on syntaxial development in the Nanga Parbat region, Pakistan. Tectonics 15:1292–1308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Yin A (2006) Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Himalayan orogen as constrained by along-strike variation of structural geometry, exhumation history, and foreland sedimentation. Earth Sci Rev 76:1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Zhao W, Nelson KD, Project INDEPTH Team (1993) Deep seismic reflection evidence for continental underthrusting beneath southern Tibet. Nature 302:557–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. K. Jain
    • 1
  1. 1.CSIR-Central Building Research InstituteRoorkeeIndia

Personalised recommendations