Proteome Imaging: From Classic to Modern Mass Spectrometry-Based Molecular Histology

  • Anca-Narcisa NeaguEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1140)


In order to overcome the limitations of classic imaging in Histology during the actually era of multiomics, the multi-color “molecular microscope” by its emerging “molecular pictures” offers quantitative and spatial information about thousands of molecular profiles without labeling of potential targets. Healthy and diseased human tissues, as well as those of diverse invertebrate and vertebrate animal models, including genetically engineered species and cultured cells, can be easily analyzed by histology-directed MALDI imaging mass spectrometry. The aims of this review are to discuss a range of proteomic information emerging from MALDI mass spectrometry imaging comparative to classic histology, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, with applications in biology and medicine, concerning the detection and distribution of structural proteins and biological active molecules, such as antimicrobial peptides and proteins, allergens, neurotransmitters and hormones, enzymes, growth factors, toxins and others. The molecular imaging is very well suited for discovery and validation of candidate protein biomarkers in neuroproteomics, oncoproteomics, aging and age-related diseases, parasitoproteomics, forensic, and ecotoxicology. Additionally, in situ proteome imaging may help to elucidate the physiological and pathological mechanisms involved in developmental biology, reproductive research, amyloidogenesis, tumorigenesis, wound healing, neural network regeneration, matrix mineralization, apoptosis and oxidative stress, pain tolerance, cell cycle and transformation under oncogenic stress, tumor heterogeneity, behavior and aggressiveness, drugs bioaccumulation and biotransformation, organism’s reaction against environmental penetrating xenobiotics, immune signaling, assessment of integrity and functionality of tissue barriers, behavioral biology, and molecular origins of diseases. MALDI MSI is certainly a valuable tool for personalized medicine and “Eco-Evo-Devo” integrative biology in the current context of global environmental challenges.


Proteome Imaging Histology Histochemistry Immunohistochemistry Molecular histology MALDI MSI 


2-D/3-D MSI

Two-dimensional/three-dimensional mass spectrometry images


Avidin-biotin complex


Activity-based protein profiling


Alzheimer’s disease


Air flow-assisted ionization mass spectrometry imaging


Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization


Atmospheric pressure photo-ionization


Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid


Blood-brain barrier


Cancer associated fibroblasts


α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid


Confocal laser scanning microscopy


Cartilage oligomeric matrix glycoprotein


Characteristic spectral patterns


Desorption electrospray ionization/electrospray ionization


2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid


Differential interference contrast


Desorption/ionization on silicon


Exhaled breath condensate


Electrospray ionization


High field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry




Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded


Fluorescence in situ hybridization


Fluorescein isothiocyanate


Fluorescence lifetime imaging


Fluorescence resonance energy transfer


Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance




Gas chromatography


Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry


Glial fibrillary acidic protein


Green fluorescent protein


Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid


Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid glucuronide


Hematoxylin and eosin




Hierarchical clustering analysis


Alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid


Human neutrophil peptide


High-performance/pressure liquid chromatography


High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry


High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry


High-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry


High-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry


High-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry


Horseradish peroxidase


Hyalinizing trabecular tumor






Ion mobility spectrometry


Infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization quantitative mass spectrometry imaging


Indium tin oxide glass microscope slide


Laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry


Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry imaging


Laser microprobe mass analysis


Liquid chromatography


Laser-capture microdissection


Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry


Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry


Liquid extraction surface analysis


Liquid microjunction surface sampling


Living skin equivalents




Matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization


Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization


Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance–mass spectrometry


Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance–mass spectrometry imaging


Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-ion mobility separation-mass spectrometry imaging


Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry


Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging


Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time-of-flight–mass spectrometry


Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time-of-flight–mass spectrometry imaging


Multigrid MALDI MSI


Magnetic resonance imaging


Mass spectrometry


Tandem mass spectrometry


Mass spectrometry imaging


Multidimensional protein identification technology


Myosin heavy chain


Nano-assisted laser desorption ionization


Nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry


Near-field scanning optical microscopy


Principal component analysis


Positron emission tomography


Protein-protein interactions


Papillary thyroid carcinoma


Quantitative mass spectrometry imaging


Rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry


Regions of interests


Sinapinic acid


Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization


Spinning disk confocal microscopy


Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization


Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry


Scanning electron microscopy


Secondary ion mass spectrometry


Scanning microprobe MALDI


Surface plasmon resonance

Tag-Mass MSI

Targeted mass spectrometric imaging


Transmission electron microscopy


Total internal reflection fluorescence


Tissue microarrays




t-Distributed stochastic neighbor embedding


Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography


Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Animal Histology, Faculty of Biology“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of IasiIasiRomania

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