Advertisement

Social Equity in the Philippines: A Continuing but Elusive Promise

  • Alex B. BrillantesJrEmail author
  • Maria Victoria R. Raquiza
  • Maria Pilar M. Lorenzo
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, Brillantes, Raquiza, and Lorenzo focus on the imperatives of social equity as a fundamental—but normative—principle for contemporary Philippine public administration. The pursuit of social equity may be seen as a response to the problems of pervasive poverty and inequality in spite of, paradoxically, rapid economic growth. The chapter cites two government programs that ostensibly aim to bring about social equity, the Conditional Cash Transfer program and the Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion law. Evidence has shown that both programs have yet to make a significant impact to redistribute wealth in a lasting way within the context of social equity. Hence, the chapter argues that social equity in the Philippines is a continuing process but remains an elusive goal.

References

  1. ABS-CBN News. (2018, October 24). Senator Presses Government on Unconditional Cash Transfers. Retrieved on 25 October 2018 from https://news.abs-cbn.com/business/10/24/18/senator-presses-govt-on-unconditional-cash-transfers
  2. Africa, J. E. A., Raquiza, M. V. R., Evalyn, G., & Ursua, E. L. J. (2017). Reforming Philippine Anti-poverty Policy: A Comprehensive and Integrated Anti-poverty Framework. Quezon City: National Anti-Poverty Commission Secretariat.Google Scholar
  3. Asian Development Bank. (2018). Philippines: Economy. Retrieved on 17 June 2018 from https://www.adb.org/countries/philippines/economy
  4. Balisacan, A. (2001). Did the Estrada Administration Benefit the Poor? In A. Doronila (Ed.), Between Fires: Fifteen Perspectives on the Estrada Crisis. Manila: Anvil Publishing.Google Scholar
  5. Brillantes, A., & Fernandez, M. (2008). Is There a Philippine Public Administration? Or Better Still, for Whom Is Philippine Public Administration? Introduction to Public Administration in the Philippines: A Reader. Quezon City: UP NCPAG.Google Scholar
  6. Brillantes, A. Jr., & Perante-Calina, L. (2018a). Antonio Meloto: Empowering the Filipino Poor Toward Sustainable and Innovative Communities. In H. Ayano et al. (Eds.), Knowledge Creation in Community Development: Institutional Change in Southeast Asia and Japan. Cham: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  7. Brillantes, A., & Perante-Calina, L. (2018b). Leadership and Public Sector Reform in the Philippines. In E. Berman & E. Prasojo (Eds.), Leadership and Public Sector Reform in Asia. Bingley: Emerald Publishing.Google Scholar
  8. Cabuenas, J. (2018, January 23). PHL is 3rd Fastest Growing Economy in Asia. Retrieved from GMA News Online on 18 June 2018 from http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/money/economy/640707/phl-is-3rd-fastest-growing-economy-in-asia/story/
  9. Cecchini, S., and Madariaga, A. (2011). Conditional Cash Transfer Programmes: The Recent Experience in Latin America and the Caribbean. ECLAC/Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.Google Scholar
  10. Chaudhury, N., Friedman, J., & Onishi, J. (2013). Promoting Inclusive Growth in the Philippines: Assessing the Impacts of the Conditional Cash Transfer Program. A collaborative Study by the Philippine Department of Social Welfare and Development, the World Bank and the Australian Agency for International Development (AUSAID).Google Scholar
  11. Congressional Policy and Budget Research Department. (2011, July). Accountability Mechanisms in the Implementation of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs. Congressional Policy and Budget Research Department Policy Brief, No. 2011-08.Google Scholar
  12. Dancel, R., Soeriaatmadja, W., Teoh, S., & Yee, T. (2017, November 27). South-east Asia’s Roaring Economies. Retrieved from Straitstimes on 17 June 2018 from https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/south-east-asias-roaring-economies
  13. Dela Paz, C., & Schnabel, C. (2017, August 24). Wealth of 50 Filipinos Account for 24% of PH’s 2016 GDP. Retrieved from Rappler on 17 June 2018 from https://www.rappler.com/business/179857-henry-sy-forbes-richest-philippines-2017
  14. Department of Finance. (2018). What Is the Tax Reform Program? Retrieved on 16 June 2018 from http://www.dof.gov.ph/taxreform/index.php/train/
  15. Forbes. (2017). Philippines’ 50 Richest 2017. Retrieved from Forbes on 17 June 2018 from https://www.forbes.com/philippines-billionaires/#7dd98db77776
  16. Frederickson, H. (2010). Social Equity and the New Public Administration. In Social Equity and Public Administration: Origins, Developments, and Applications. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  17. Gawad Kalinga. (n.d.). How We End Poverty. Retrieved from Gawad Kalinga website on 11 November 2018 from http://www.gk1world.com/our-model
  18. International Monetary Fund (IMF). (2018). World Economic Outlook April 2018: Cyclical Upswing, Structural Change. Washington, DC: IMF. Retrieved on 20 June 2018 from http://www.imf.org/external/datamapper/NGDP_RPCH@WEO/OEMDC/ADVEC/WEOWORLD
  19. Jian, Z., & Daniel, J. L. (2017). Prospects for Progressive Tax Reforms in Asia and the Pacific. Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Policy and Financing Department, UNESCAP, Bangkok.Google Scholar
  20. Legaspi, A. (2018, August 16). Retrieved from GMA News Online on 17 August 2018 from http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/money/economy/664394/dof-admits-it-did-not-compute-indirect-effect-of-train-on-inflation/story/
  21. Lopez, T. (2018a, June 1). TRAIN as Tren. Retrieved from Manila Times on 01 June 2018 from http://manilastandard.net/opinion/columns/virtual-reality-by-tony-lopez/266993/train-as-tren.html
  22. Lopez, T. (2018b, October 10). High Inflation Unique to PH in ASEAN. Retrieved from Manila Times on October 10, 2018 from http://manilastandard.net/opinion/columns/virtual-reality-by-tony-lopez/277582/high-inflation-unique-to-ph-in-asean.html
  23. Manlapaz, A., Liza, M., & Benjamin, B. (2016). Do Not Leave Us (Again)! In For Justice and Sustainability: The Other PH 2030 Agenda Spotlight Report. Quezon City: Social Watch Philippines and the United Nations Development Program.Google Scholar
  24. National Economic Development Authority (NEDA). (2011). Chapter 1: In Pursuit of Inclusive Growth in the Philippine Development Plan, 2011–2016 (p. 29). Pasig: NEDA.Google Scholar
  25. Orbeta, A., Abdon, A., del Mundo, M., Tutor, M., Valera, M. T., & Yarcia, D. (2014). Keeping Children Healthy and in School: Evaluating the Pantawid Pamilya Using Regressive Discontinuity Design Second Wave Impact Evaluation Results. A Study Commissioned by the Department of Social Welfare and Development with support from the Philippine Institute of Development Studies, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and the Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.Google Scholar
  26. Panti, L. (2018). VDS (Oct 8, 2018). Retrieved from GMA News Online on 12 October 2018 from http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/money/economy/670444/salceda-says-2-4-m-filipinos-to-sink-in-poverty-as-inflation-soars/story/
  27. Philippine Statistics Authority. (2016). Poverty Among the Basic Sectors in the Philippines. Quezon City: PSA Social Sector Statistics Service and PSA Poverty and Human Development Statistics Division.Google Scholar
  28. Philippine Statistics Authority. (2018). Employment Rate in January 2018 Is Estimated at 94.7%. Retrieved from PSA on 17 June 2018 from https://www.psa.gov.ph/content/employment-rate-january-2018-estimated-947-percent
  29. Pilar, N. (1982 July–October). The Relevance of the New PA in Philippine Public Administration. Philippine Journal of Public Administration 26(3–4): 228–234.Google Scholar
  30. Raquiza, M. V. R. (2013). Eradicating Poverty and Building Human Development: ‘A Preliminary Study of the Challenges Confronting Pantawid Pamilya Program.’ In Pagugol sa Matuwid, Patas sa Taumbayan (Spending Wisely for the People), an Alternative Budget Initiative-Social Watch Philippine report. Quezon City: Social Watch Philippines.Google Scholar
  31. Raquiza, M. V. R. (2018). The Allure of Pantawid Pamilya the Conditional Cash Transfer Program. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. United Nations (ESCAP), Asian Development Bank, United Nations Development Programme. (2017). Eradicating Poverty and Promoting Prosperity in a Changing Asia-Pacific. Thailand: UN, ADB & UNDP.Google Scholar
  33. UNU-WIDER. (2018). World Income Inequality Database. Retrieved from United Nations University on 25 June 2018 from https://www.wider.unu.edu/database/world-income-inequality-database-wiid4
  34. World Bank. (2017). Philippines Economic Update April 2017. Retrieved from World Bank on 17 June 2018 from http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2017/05/04/philippines-economic-update-april-2017
  35. World Bank. (2018a). Philippines Economic Update: Investing in the Future. Retrieved on 20 June 2018 from http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/philippines/publication/philippines-economic-update-investing-in-the-future
  36. World Bank. (2018b). GINI Index (World Bank Estimate). Retrieved from World Bank, Development Research Group on 17 June 2018 from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.GINI?end=2015&locations=PH&start=1985&view=chart
  37. World Bank. (2018c). Global Economic Perspectives: The Turning of the Tide? Retrieved from World Bank on 17 June 2018 from http://pubdocs.worldbank.org/en/978731526416494777/Global-Economic-Prospects-June-2018-Regional-Overview-EAP.pdf
  38. World Health Organization and World Bank. (2011). World Report on Disability 2011. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  39. Yap, K. (2017, January 26). Rising Tiger Philippines’ Posts Some of the World’s Fastest Growth. Retrieved from Bloomberg on 17 June 2018 from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-01-26/asia-s-new-growth-leader-takes-over-from-fading-tiger-economies

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alex B. BrillantesJr
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maria Victoria R. Raquiza
    • 1
  • Maria Pilar M. Lorenzo
    • 2
  1. 1.National College of Public Administration and GovernanceUniversity of the PhilippinesQuezon CityPhilippines
  2. 2.Philippine Society for Public AdministrationQuezon CityPhilippines

Personalised recommendations