Environmental Sustainability and Climate Change

  • Alastair Fraser
Part of the Sustainable Development Goals Series book series (SDGS)


In this chapter, the environmental benefits of forests for minimising the impact of soil erosion, mitigating floods and droughts and coastal protection are discussed. The linkage between forests and climate change can be both negative through emissions and positive through sequestration of carbon dioxide. At present forests are net contributors to emissions and further loss of forest will both increase overall emissions and reduce the capacity of forests to mitigate emissions from other sources. Agro-ecological zones are likely to change due to global warming which may mean forests replacing agriculture in some areas and vice versa. The current low market price of carbon limits the role that forests can play due to the high transaction costs of implementing CDM and REDD+ initiatives.


Soil erosion Floods Climate change CO2 emissions Carbon pricing 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alastair Fraser
    • 1
  1. 1.Consultant in Forest Policy and EconomicsPerthshireUK

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