Costs of Forest Management and Regeneration

  • Alastair Fraser
Part of the Sustainable Development Goals Series book series (SDGS)


Achieving sustainable management of forests requires the establishment of a Permanent Forest Estate (PFE). The use of scenarios is described as a useful tool to assist in reconciliation of conflicting views among stakeholders. Once a PFE has been decided and designated, it needs to be divided into Forest Management Units (FMUs). These need to be delineated on the ground in a participatory manner with local communities and permanent boundaries marked. The activities involved in managing FMUs sustainably are set out and indicative costs given for each of the main activities, which include boundary marking, forest and biodiversity inventories, management planning, access, yield regulation, protection and monitoring.


Permanent Forest Estate Forest management unit Inventories Management planning 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alastair Fraser
    • 1
  1. 1.Consultant in Forest Policy and EconomicsPerthshireUK

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