Advertisement

From Socrates to Smith: The Moral and Cultural Foundations of Economics

  • Victor V. Claar
  • Greg Forster
Chapter

Abstract

Outlines the moral and cultural nature of historical paradigms for studying economics—the Nature paradigm of classical Greece and Rome, the God paradigm of medieval and early modern Christians, and the Reason paradigm of the Enlightenment—as well as reasons these paradigms passed away. For 2300 years the economy was rooted in imperatives that were seen as a permanent part of human nature. This is a point on which ancients, medievals and moderns largely agreed, and in each age predominant thinkers defended it using similar arguments. This is the integration of empirical, moral, and cultural observation in our understanding of economics lost its grip among leading economists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and was replaced by the new vision: the Keynesian Revolution.

References

  1. Adams, John. 1985. A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law. In The Political Writings of John Adams. Oxford, London and New York, NY: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  2. Annas, Julia. 1999. Platonic Ethics, Old and New. Oxford, London and New York, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Appleby, Joyce. 2010. The Relentless Revolution. Oxford, London and New York, NY: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  4. Aristotle. 1980. Ethics. Oxford, London and New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Aristotle. 1992. Politics. Oxford, London and New York, NY: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  6. Armstrong, Chris R. 2013. Refocused Vocation. Leadership Journal 34: 44–48.Google Scholar
  7. Augustine. 1984. City of God. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  8. Baker, David L. 2009. Tight Fists or Open Hands? New York: Eerdmans.Google Scholar
  9. Berger, Peter L. 2014. The Many Altars of Modernity. Berlin and Boston: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  10. Bloom, Allan. 1987. The Closing of the American Mind. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  11. Bloom, Allan. 1990a. The Political Philosopher in Democratic Society: The Socratic View. In Giants and Dwarfs, ed. Allan Bloom. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  12. Bloom, Allan. 1990b. Rousseau: The Turning Point. In Giants and Dwarfs, Allan Bloom. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  13. Bloom, Allan. 1991. Interpretive Essay. In Republic, Plato. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  14. Blomberg, Craig. 2000. Neither Poverty Nor Riches. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press.Google Scholar
  15. Claar, Victor V. 2010. Ethics and Economics. In 21st Century Economics: A Reference Handbook, ed. Rhona Free. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Claar, Victor V., and Robin J. Klay. 2007. Economics in Christian Perspective. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press.Google Scholar
  17. Clark, J.C.D. 1994. The Language of Liberty 1660–1832. Cambridge and New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Corbett, Steve, and Brian Fikkert. 2014. When Helping Hurts. Chicago: Moody Publishers.Google Scholar
  19. Cosden, Darrell. 2006. A Theology of Work. Eugene: Wipf & Stock.Google Scholar
  20. Crespo, Ricardo F. 2006. The Ontology of ‘the Economic’: An Aristotelian Analysis. Cambridge Journal of Economics 30 (5): 767–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Crespo, Ricardo F. 2008. ‘The Economic’ According to Aristotle. Foundations of Science 13 (3–4): 281–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dorfman, Joseph. 1966. The Economic Mind in American Civilization, 1606–1865. New York: Augustus M. Kelley.Google Scholar
  23. Forster, Greg. 2016. A Win-Win Solution: The Empirical Evidence on School Choice. Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, May 2016.Google Scholar
  24. Frederickson, George M. 2002. Racism: A Short History. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Grabill, Stephen J. 2007. Editor’s Introduction. In Sourcebook in Late-Scholastic Monetary Theory, ed. Stephen J. Grabill. Grand Rapids: Acton Institute.Google Scholar
  26. Gunton, Colin. 1998. The Triune Creator. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.Google Scholar
  27. Hall, David W., and Matthew D. Burton. 2009. Calvin and Commerce. Phillipsburg: P&R Publishing.Google Scholar
  28. Hamilton, Alexander, James Madison, and John Jay. 2003. The Federalist. Cambridge and New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Hammond, J.Daniel. 2015. Malthus, Utopians and Economists. Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology 33: 179–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Heyne, Paul. 2008. “Are Economists Basically Immoral?” and Other Essays on Economics, Ethics and Religion. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.Google Scholar
  31. Hutchison, T.W. 1964. Positive Economics and Policy Objectives. New York: George Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  32. Joyce, Adam, and Greg Forster (eds.). 2017. Economic Wisdom for Churches. Deerfield: Oikonomia Network. Google Scholar
  33. Klosko, George. 1981. Implementing the Ideal State. Journal of Politics 43 (2): 365–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Locke, John. 1993. Two Treatises of Government. London: Everyman Library.Google Scholar
  35. Loconte, Joseph. 2016. God, Locke and Liberty. Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  36. Longenecker, Bruce W., and Kelly D. Liebengood, eds. 2009. Engaging Economics. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.Google Scholar
  37. Maddison, Angus. 2007. Contours of the World Economy. New York, NY and Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Marx, Karl. 1906. Capital. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr.Google Scholar
  39. McCloskey, Deirdre N. 2010. Bourgeois Dignity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  40. Morrison, Donald R. 2007. The Utopian Character of Plato’s Ideal City. In Cambridge Companion to Plato’s Republic, ed. G.R.F. Ferrari. Cambridge & New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Nelson, Tom. 2017. The Economics of Neighbor Love. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press.Google Scholar
  42. Noll, Mark A. 1992. A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.Google Scholar
  43. North, Douglass C., John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast. 2009. Violence and Social Orders. Cambridge and New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Novak, Michael. 2003. On Two Wings. San Francisco: Encounter Books.Google Scholar
  45. Pascal, Blaise. 1901. Thoughts. London: George Bell & Sons.Google Scholar
  46. Plato. 1991. Republic. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  47. Rhee, Helen. 2012. Loving the Poor, Saving the Rich. Grand Rapids: Baker.Google Scholar
  48. de Roover, Raymond. 1958. The Concept of the Just Price. Journal of Economic History 18 (4): 418–434.Google Scholar
  49. Rothschild, Emma. 2013. Economic Sentiments. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Schneider, John R. 2002. The Good of Affluence. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.Google Scholar
  51. Schütrumpf, Eckart. 2012. Aristotle. In Encyclopedia of Ancient History. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  52. Sherman, Amy L. 2011. Kingdom Calling. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press.Google Scholar
  53. Sidgwick, Henry. 1883. Principles of Political Economy. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  54. Smith, Adam. 1994. The Wealth of Nations. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  55. Smith, Adam. 2006. Theory of Moral Sentiments. Mineola: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  56. Stark, Rodney. 2005. The Victory of Reason. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  57. Tait, Edwin Woodruff. 2014. Duty and Delight. Christian History 110: 14–19.Google Scholar
  58. Taylor, Charles. 2007. A Secular Age. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  59. de Tocqueville, Alexis. 2003. Democracy in America. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  60. Vance, Lawrence. 2006. Francis Wayland: Preacher-Economist. Independent Review 10: 401–410.Google Scholar
  61. Veith, Gene Edward. 2011. God at Work. Wheaton: Crossway.Google Scholar
  62. Washington, George. 2017. Washington’s Farewell Address. Yale Law School Avalon Project. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/washing.asp. Accessed 2 Feb 2017.
  63. Waters, Brent. 2016. Just Capitalism. Louisville: Westminster John Knox.Google Scholar
  64. Wayland, Francis. 1870. Elements of Political Economy. Boston: Gould and Lincoln.Google Scholar
  65. Willard, Dallas, and Gary Black, Jr. 2014. The Divine Conspiracy Continued. San Francisco: HarperOne.Google Scholar
  66. Wingren, Gustaf. 2004. Luther on Vocation. Eugene: Wipf & Stock.Google Scholar
  67. Wittmer, Michael. 2017. Is a Just Price Enough? Journal of Markets & Morality 20 (2): 263–278.Google Scholar
  68. Wong, Kenman L., and Scott B. Rae. 2011. Business for the Common Good. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victor V. Claar
    • 1
  • Greg Forster
    • 2
  1. 1.Florida Gulf Coast UniversityFort MyersUSA
  2. 2.Trinity International UniversityDeerfieldUSA

Personalised recommendations