Within Host Dynamical Immune Response to Co-infection with Malaria and Tuberculosis

  • Edme Soho
  • Stephen WirkusEmail author
Part of the STEAM-H: Science, Technology, Engineering, Agriculture, Mathematics & Health book series (STEAM)


Diseases have been part of human life for generations and evolve within the population, sometimes dying out while other times becoming endemic or the cause of recurrent outbreaks. Co-infection with different pathogens is common, yet little is known about how infection with one pathogen affects the host’s immunological response to another. Immunology-based models of malaria and tuberculosis (TB) are constructed by extending and modifying existing mathematical models in the literature. The two are then combined to give a single nine-variable model of co-infection with malaria and TB. The immunology-based models of malaria and TB give numerical results that agree with the biological observations. The malaria–TB co-infection model gives reasonable results and these suggest that the order in which the two diseases are introduced have an impact on the behavior of both.


Tuberculosis Malaria Math models Co-infection 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MathematicsHostos Community CollegeBronxUSA
  2. 2.School of Mathematical & Natural SciencesArizona State UniversityGlendaleUSA

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