Heterogeneous Type-I and Type-II Catalysts for the Degradation of Pollutants

  • J. Nimita Jebaranjitham
  • Baskaran Ganesh Kumar
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 34)


Water is a major source for living systems including terrestrial, aquatic, and aerial flora and fauna. But the growing industrialization releases a huge amount of toxic and obnoxious chemicals into the water stream. Thus, the inadequate access to clean water is an extremely important problem throughout the world. Solving this water problem requires sincere research to identify robust new methods. The new method is expected to be a technology for all, that is, a technology for developed and developing countries and resource-limited settings. To meet the demand, the method should be effective, simple, cheap, and environmentally friendly, and one such method is the photocatalytic degradation of water. Photocatalytic degradation of water provides the unprecedented opportunities for the purification of water by providing clean technology. Considerable effort has been made to design, fabricate, and manipulate materials for photocatalytic degradation. The present work summarizes the established and recent progress in heterogeneous catalysis and its types. Based on the band alignment of semiconductors, the heterogeneous catalyst is divided into type-I and type-II. The type-I photocatalyst having a straddle band gap between two semiconductors, and the type-II photocatalyst having a staggered band gap between two semiconductors. We described the prominent and effective catalysts in each type and explained with advanced examples. The mechanism of degradation of organic impurities is also discussed. The factors influencing the photocatalytic performance are also summarized in detail. To guide the user, design considerations for the photocatalyst are also suggested. We suggested a range of future directions necessary to promote the photocatalytic degradation as an effective method among water purification technologies and to promote the breakthrough photocatalytic degradation phenomenon.


Photocatalysts Heterogeneous photocatalysts Water purification Water degradation Environment Toxicity Eco-friendliness Organic impurities Photocatalytic degradation Type-I band alignment Type-II band alignment 



B.G.K wishes to dedicate the present work to his PhD advisor Prof. K. Muralidharan, School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad, India. We thank the editor Dr. Saravanan Rajendran for valuable suggestions, feedbacks, and discussions.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Nimita Jebaranjitham
    • 1
  • Baskaran Ganesh Kumar
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.P.G. Department of ChemistryWomen’s Christian CollegeChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Electronics EngineeringKoc UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryPSR Arts and Science CollegeSivakasiIndia

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