Advertisement

Scaffolding and Assessing Teachers’ Examination of Games for Teaching and Learning

  • Mamta ShahEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Game-Based Learning book series (AGBL)

Abstract

This chapter is situated in an 11-week doctoral study (April–June 2013) that applied the Game Network Analysis (GaNA) framework to scaffold and assess 14 pre-service teachers’ knowledge and skills for game-based learning (GBL) around 3 focal areas, namely, game analysis, game integration, and ecological conditions. The chapter illustrates how formative and summative assessments were created using the GaNA framework (a) to support participating pre-service teachers to examine games as a form of curriculum and (b) to afford the researcher to qualitatively and quantitatively capture the change in teachers’ game literacy and the extent to which it was integrated with teachers’ design of game-based lesson plans. The chapter presents group findings and an illustrative case study of Max, a male pre-service English/language arts teacher learning (a) to examine the situated affordances and constraints of games through direct and vicarious ways, (b) to document their findings about a game, and (c) to reflect on the possibilities of repurposing a game for curricular use. The chapter concludes with implications for researchers and teacher educators interested in supporting teachers to adopt technological and pedagogical innovations where learning is mediated through play.

Keywords

Game Network Analysis Game-based learning Game analysis Game integration  Ecological conditions Teacher education 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I want to extend my gratitude to Drs. Aroutis Foster, Elizabeth Haslam, Diane Jass Ketelhut, and Sarah Reynolds Ulrich. Their guidance and support for my doctoral study are invaluable.

References

  1. Aarseth, E. (2003). Playing research: Methodological approaches to game analysis. Paper presented at the Digital Arts and Culture conference, Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, G., Eaton, I., & Egan, K. (2010). Cracking the code of electronic games: Some lessons for educators. Teachers College Record, 112(7), 1830–1850.Google Scholar
  3. Allsop, Y., Yeniman Yildirim, E., & Screpanti, M. (2013). Teachers’ beliefs about game based learning: A comparative study of pedagogy, curriculum and practice in Italy, Turkey and the UK. In The Proceedings of The 7th European Conference on Games Based Learning (pp. 1–10), 3–4 October, Porto, Portugal.Google Scholar
  4. An, Y. (2018). The effects of an online professional development course on teachers’ perceptions, attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions regarding digital game-based learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 66, 1505–1527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baek, Y. K. (2008). What hinders teachers in using computer and video games in the classroom? Exploring factors inhibiting the uptake of computer and video games. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 11(6), 665–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barab, S. A., Scott, B., Siyahhan, S., Goldstone, R., Ingram-Goble, A., Zuiker, S. J., & Warren, S. (2009). Transformational Play as a Curricular Scaffold: Using Videogames to Support Science Education. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 18(4), 305–320.Google Scholar
  7. Barbour, M. K., Rieber, L. P., Thomas, G. B., & Rauscher, D. (2009). Homemade PowerPoint games: A constructionist alternative to WebQuests. Tech Trends, 53(5), 54–59.Google Scholar
  8. Barzilai, S., & Blau, I. (2014). Scaffolding game-based learning: Impact on learning achievements, perceived learning, and game experiences. Computers & Education, 70, 65–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Becker, K. (2007). Digital game-based learning once removed: Teaching teachers. British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 478–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bell, A., & Gresalfi, M. S. (2017). Teaching with videogames: How experience impacts classroom integration. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 22(3), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boyle, E. A., Hainey, T., Connolly, T. M., Gray, G., Earp, J., Ott, M., … Pereira, J. (2016). An update to the systematic literature review of empirical evidence of the impacts and outcomes of computer games and serious games. Computers & Education, 94, 178–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Caldwell, K. E. H., Osterweil, S., Urbano, C., Tan, P., & Eberhardt, R. (2017). “I Just Don’t Know Where to Begin”: Designing to facilitate the educational use of commercial, off-the-shelf video games. In M. Ma & A. Oikonomou (Eds.), Serious games and edutainment applications (Vol. II, pp. 625–848). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chee, Y. S., Mehrotra, S., & Ong, J. C. (2015). Professional development for scaling pedagogical innovation in the context of game-based learning: Teacher identity as cornerstone in “shifting” practice. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 43(5), 423–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clark, D. B., Tanner-Smith, E. E., & Killingsworth, S. S. (2016). Digital games, design, and learning: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 86(1), 79–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. de Freitas, S. (2018). Are games effective learning tools? A review of educational games. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 21(2), 74–84.Google Scholar
  17. Demirbilek, M., & Tamer, S. L. (2010). Math teachers’ perspectives on using educational computer games in math education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 709–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Denzin, N. K. (1970). The research act in sociology. Chicago, IL: Aldine.Google Scholar
  19. Dewey, J. (1956). The child and the curriculum; and, the school and society. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  20. Eastwood, J. L., & Sadler, T. D. (2013). Teachers’ implementation of a game-based biotechnology curriculum. Computers & Education, 66, 11–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fishman, B., Riconscente, M., Snider, R., Tsai, T., & Plass, J. (2014). Empowering educators: Supporting student progress in the classroom with digital games. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  22. Foster, A. (2008). Games and motivation to learn science: Personal identity, applicability, relevance and meaningfulness. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 19, 597–614.Google Scholar
  23. Foster, A., & Shah, M. (2015a). The ICCE framework: Framing learning experiences afforded by games. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 51(4), 369–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Foster, A., & Shah, M. (2015b). The play curricular activity reflection and discussion model for game-based learning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 47(2), 71–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Foster, A., Shah, M., & Duvall, M. (2015). Game network analysis: For teaching with games. In M. L. Niess & H. Gillow-Wiles (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education in the digital age (pp. 380–411). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Foster, A. N. (2011). The process of learning in a simulation strategy game: Disciplinary knowledge construction. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 45, 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Foster, A. N. (2012). Assessing learning games for school content: Framework and methodology. In D. Ifenthaler, D. Eseryel, & X. Ge (Eds.), Assessment in game-based learning: Foundations, innovations, and perspectives. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  28. Franklin, T., & Annetta, L. (2011). Special issue: Digital games and simulations in teacher preparation. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 19(3), 239–242.Google Scholar
  29. Gaydos, M. J., & Devane, B. M. (2019). Designing for identity in game-based learning. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 26(1), 61–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gee, J. P. (2005). Good Video Games and Good Learning. Phi Kappa Phi Forum 85(2), 33–37.Google Scholar
  31. Given, L. M. (2008). The Sage encyclopedia of qualitative research methods. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gopin, E. (2018). Finding and evaluating great educational games. In I. Management Association (Ed.), Gamification in education: Breakthroughs in research and practice (pp. 323–337). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Groff, J., McCall, J., Darvasi, P., & Gilbert, Z. (2016). Using games in the classroom. In K. Schrier (Ed.), Learning, education and games (Bringing games into educational contexts) (Vol. 2, pp. 19–41). Pittsburgh, PA: ETC.Google Scholar
  34. Groff, J. S. (2018). The potentials of game-based environments for integrated, immersive learning data. European Journal of Education, 53(2), 188–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Guest, G., MacQueen, K. M., & Namey, E. E. (2012). Applied thematic analysis. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Halverson, R. (2005). What can K-12 school leaders learn from video games and gaming? Innovate: Journal of Online Education, 1(6). Retrieved from http://www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=article&id=81
  37. Hanghøj, T., & Brund, C. E. (2011). Teachers and serious games: Teachers roles and positionings in relation to educational games. In Serious games in education: A global perspective (1st ed., pp. 125–136). Copenhagen, Denmark: Aarhus Universitetsforlag.Google Scholar
  38. Hanghøj, T., & Hautopp, H. (2016). Teachers’ pedagogical approaches to teaching with Minecraft. In 10th European Conference on Games Based Learning: ECGBL 2016. Academic Conferences and Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  39. Haslam, E. L. (1987). The design, implementation, and evaluation of a college inquiry writing course (Unpublished dissertation). University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  40. Hayes, E., & Orhnberger, M. (2013). The gamer generation teaches school—The gaming practices and attitudes towards technology of pre-service teachers. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 21(2), 153–177.Google Scholar
  41. Hsu, C.-Y., Liang, J.-C., & Su, Y.-C. (2015). The role of the TPACK in game-based teaching: Does instructional sequence matter? Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 24(3), 463–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hwang, G. J., & Wu, P. H. (2012). Advancement and trends in digital game-based learning research: A review of publications in selected journals from 2001 to 2010. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(1), E6–E10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jaipal, K., & Figg, C. (2009). Using video games in science instruction: Pedagogical, social, and concept-related aspects. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 9(2), 117–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jong, M. S.-Y., & Shang, J. (2015). Impeding phenomena emerging from students’ constructivist online game-based learning process: Implications for the importance of teacher facilitation. Educational Technology & Society, 18, 262–283.Google Scholar
  45. Kafai, Y. B., & Burke, Q. (2015, January 1). Constructionist gaming: Understanding the benefits of making games for learning. Educational Psychologist, 50(4), 313–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kangas, M., Koskinen, A., & Krokfors, L. (2016). A qualitative literature review of educational games in the classroom: The teacher’s pedagogical activities. Teachers and Teaching, 23, 451.Google Scholar
  47. Kennedy-Clark, S., Galstaun, V., & Anderson, K. (2015). Death in Rome: Using an Online Game for Inquiry-Based Learning in a Pre-Service Teacher Training Course. In I. Management Association (Ed.), STEM Education: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (pp. 1118-1132). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-7363-2.ch060.
  48. Kenny, R., & Gunter, G. (2011). Factors affecting adoption of video games in the classroom. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 22(2), 259–276.Google Scholar
  49. Kenny, R. F., & McDaniel, R. (2011). The Role Teachers’ Expectations and Value Assessments of Video Games Play in Their Adopting and Integrating Them into Their Classrooms. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(2), 197–213.Google Scholar
  50. Ketelhut, D. J., & Schifter, C. C. (2011). Teachers and game-based learning: Improving understanding of how to increase efficacy of adoption. Computers & Education, 56(2), 539–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Liamputtong, P. (2011). Focus group methodology: Principles and practices. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Marklund, B. B., & Taylor, A.-S. A. (2015). Teachers’ many roles in game-based learning projects. In R. Munkvold & L. Kolås (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Games Based Learning (pp. 359–367). Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited.Google Scholar
  53. Mehta, R., Henriksen, D., & Rosenberg, J. M. (2019, January 1). It’s not about the tools. Educational Leadership, 76(5), 64–69.Google Scholar
  54. Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A new framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Molin, G. (2017). The role of the teacher in game-based learning: A review and outlook. In M. Ma & A. Oikonomou (Eds.), Serious games and edutainment applications (Vol. II, pp. 649–674). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moline, T. (2009). Descriptors of quality teachers and quality digital games. In Handbook of research on effective electronic gaming in education (pp. 652–669). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nardi, B. A., & O’Day, V. (1999). Information ecologies: Using technology with heart. Cambridge, MA: MIT.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Niess, M. L. (2008). Guiding preservice teachers in developing TPCK. In American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) for educators (pp. 223–250). New York, NY: Routledge for the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education.Google Scholar
  59. Plass, J. L., Homer, B. D., & Kinzer, C. K. (2015). Foundations of game-based learning. Educational Psychologist, 50(4), 258–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Raphael, R. (2018). Towards a model of playful learning: Gamification strategies in the i2Flex classroom. In I. Management Association (Ed.), Gamification in education: Breakthroughs in research and practice (pp. 397–414). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ruggiero, D. (2013). Video games in the classroom: The teacher point of view. Paper presented at the Games for Learning Workshop of the Foundations of Digital Games Conference, Chania, Greece.Google Scholar
  62. Sanchez-Mena, A., Marti-Parreno, J., Sanchez-Mena, A., & Aldas-Manzano, J. (2017). The role of perceived relevance and attention in teachers’ attitude and intention to use educational video games. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 12(3), 154–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sardone, N. B., & Devlin-Scherer, R. (2010). Teacher candidate responses to digital games: 21st-century skills development. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(4), 409–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Schmidt, D. A., Baran, E., Thompson, A. D., Mishra, P., Koehler, M. J., & Shin, T. S. (2009). Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK): The development and validation of an assessment instrument for preservice teachers. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(2), 123–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shaffer, D. W., Nash, P., & Ruis, A. R. (2015). Technology and the new professionalization of teaching. Teachers College Record, 117(12), 1–30.Google Scholar
  66. Shaffer, D. W., Squire, K. R., Halverson, R., & Gee, J. P. (2005). Video games and the future of learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 87(2), 104-111.Google Scholar
  67. Shah, M., & Foster, A. (2014a). The inquiry, communication, construction and expression (ICCE) framework for understanding learning experiences in games. Special issue on applied research in immersive environments for learning. International Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments, 5(2), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Shah, M., & Foster, A. (2014b). Undertaking an ecological approach to advance game-based learning: A case study. Special issue on game-based learning for 21st century transferable skills: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 17(1), 29–41.Google Scholar
  69. Shah, M., & Foster, A. (2015). Developing and assessing teachers’ knowledge of game-based learning. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 23(2), 241–267.Google Scholar
  70. Shah, M., & Foster, A. (2018). Promoting teachers’ identity exploration: The way forward in teacher education for game-based learning. In E. Langran & J. Borup (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 486–494). Washington, DC: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).Google Scholar
  71. Shah, M., Foster, A., Scottoline, M., & Duvall, M. (2014). Pre-service teacher education in game-based learning: Analyzing and integrating Minecraft. In M. Searson & M. Ochoa (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2014 (pp. 2646–2654). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Retrieved from http://www.editlib.org/pv/131186Google Scholar
  72. Shah, M., Petrovich, M., Foster, A., Schaar, R., & Chen, D. (2019). Change in role identity of an environmental science educator who desires to facilitate learning by making. In K. Graziano (Ed.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 1635–1645). Las Vegas, NV: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved from https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/207863/Google Scholar
  73. Silseth, K. (2012). The multivoicedness of game play: Exploring the unfolding of a student’s learning trajectory in a gaming context at school. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 7(1), 63–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Siyahhan, S., Ingram-Goble, A., Barab, S., & Solomou, M. (2017). Educational games to support caring and compassion among youth: A design narrative. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 9(1), 59–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Spires, H. A., & Lester, J. C. (2016). Game-based learning: Creating a multidisciplinary community of inquiry. On the Horizon, 24, 88–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Squire, K., & Barab, S. (2012). Games, learning, and society: Learning and meaning in the digital age (pp. 279–305). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Squire, K., & Jenkins, H. (2003). Harnessing the power of games in education. Insight, 3, 5–33.Google Scholar
  78. Stieler-Hunt, C. J., & Jones, C. M. (2017). Feeling alienated–teachers using immersive digital games in classrooms. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 26(4), 457–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Takeuchi, L. M., & Vaala, S. (2014). Level up learning: A national survey on teaching with digital games. New York, NY: The Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop.Google Scholar
  80. Tuzun, H. (2007). Blending video games with learning: Issues and challenges with classroom implementations in the Turkish context. British Journal of Educational Technology, 38, 465–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Watson, W. R., Mong, C. J., & Harris, C. A. (2011). A case study of the in-class use of a video game for teaching high school history. Computers & Education, 56(2), 466–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wouters, P., & van Oostendorp, H. (2013). A meta-analytic review of the role of instructional support in game-based learning. Computers & Education, 60(1), 412–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wu, M. L. (2015). Teachers’ experience, attitudes, self-efficacy and perceived barriers to the use of digital game-based learning: A survey study through the lens of a typology of educational digital games (PhD dissertation). Michigan State University.Google Scholar
  84. Zhao, Y. (2003). What teachers need to know about technology? Framing the question. In Y. Zhao (Ed.), What should teachers know about technology (pp. 1–14). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  85. Zhao, Y., Pugh, K., Sheldon, S., & Byers, J. L. (January 01, 2002). Conditions for Classroom Technology Innovations. Teachers College Record, 104, 482–515.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Drexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations