Sustainability Conundrums

  • Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair


Sustainable agriculture requires the simultaneous maintenance of several complex dimensions: productivity, ecological integrity, economic viability, and social relevance. Each of these dimensions by itself, is complex and highly contextual. The chapter addresses these aspects.


Sustainable agriculture The Nutrient Buffer Power Concept” Adaptive process Long term productivity Resource conservation Resources Natural capital Physical capital Social capital 


  1. Altieri, M. A. (2002). Agroecological principles for sustainable agriculture. In N. Uphoff (Ed.), Agroecological innovations: Increasing food production with Participatory Development (pp. 40–46). London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  2. Carpenter, R. C. (1998). Can sustainability be measured? In H. S. Sharma & S. K. Chattopadhyay (Eds.), Sustainable development: Issues and case studies (pp. 46–55). New Delhi: Concept.Google Scholar
  3. Cobb, C., & Cobb, J. (1994). The Green National product: A proposed index of sustainable economic welfare. New York: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  4. Coleman, J. S. (1990). Foundation of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Costanza, R., & Daly, H. E. (1992). Natural capital and sustainable development. Conservation Biology, 6, 37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Costanza, R., Norgaard, R. B., Goodland, R., Daly, H. E., & Cumberland, J. H. (1997). An introduction to ecological economics. Boca Raton: CRC Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Costanza, R., d’Arge, R., de Groot, S., Farber, M., Grasso, B., Hannon, K., Limburg, S., Naeem, R. V., O’Neill, J., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R. G., Sutton, P., & van den Belt, M. (1997). The value of world ecosystem services and natural capital. Science, 387, 253–260.Google Scholar
  8. Crosson, P. (1994). Conditions for achieving a sustainable global agricultural system. In Environmental agriculture: Rethinking development issues for the 21st century. Proceeding Symposium in honor of R. D. Havener, May 5–6, 1993. Morriltown: Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development.Google Scholar
  9. Daily, G. C. (1997a). Nature’s services: Societal dependence on natural ecosystem. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  10. Daily, G. C. (1997b). What are ecosystem services? In G. C. Daily (Ed.), Nature’s services: Societal dependence on natural ecosystem (pp. 1–7). Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  11. FAO. (1991). The den Bosch declaration and agenda for action on sustainable agriculture and rural development. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.Google Scholar
  12. FAO. (2000). The State of Food and Agriculture: Lessons from the past 50 years. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.Google Scholar
  13. Hart, R. D., & Sands, M. W. (1990). Sustainable land use systems research and development. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable Land use Systems research. February 12–16, New Delhi. Oxford IBH, pp. 1–11.Google Scholar
  14. Harwood, R. R. (1990). A history of sustainable agriculture. In C. A. Edwards, R. Lal, P. Madden, R. H. Miller, & G. House (Eds.), Sustainable Agricultural Systems (pp. 3–19). Ankey: Soil and Water Conservation Society.Google Scholar
  15. Ketola, T. (1997). Ecological Eldorado: Eliminating excess over ecology. In R. Welfod (Ed.), Hijacking environmentalism: Corporate response to sustainable development (pp. 99–136). London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  16. Max-Neef, M. (1995). Economic growth and quality of life: Threshold hypothesis. Ecological Economics, 15, 115–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pretty, J. N. (1999). Value of natural and social capital for sustainable agriculture. In G. S. Dhaliwal, R. Arora, & A. K. Dhavan (Eds.), Emerging trends in sustainable agriculture. New Delhi: Commonwealth Publishers.Google Scholar
  18. Raman, S. (2006). Agricultural sustainability: Principles, processes and prospects (pp. 13904–11580). Birmingham: The Hawoth Press Inc.Google Scholar
  19. WCED. (1987). Our common future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. WRI. (2000). World resources 2000–2001. People and ecosystems, the Fraying web of life. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair
    • 1
  1. 1.International Agricultural Scientistc/o Mavila PankajakshyCalicutIndia

Personalised recommendations