Increasing Resilience in Crops for Future Changing Environment

  • Pradeep Kumar Dubey
  • Gopal Shankar Singh
  • Purushothaman Chirakkuzhyil Abhilash
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science book series (BRIEFSENVIRONMENTAL)


Increasing the resilience of agricultural crops towards various biotic and abiotic stresses is a promising method for maximizing the crop production under adverse conditions. In this chapter, we briefly discussed various integrated strategies for conferring drought, flood, salinity, pests, and diseases resistance in agricultural crops including the resistance to elevated CO2 under changing climatic conditions.


Crop modelling Drought tolerance Flood tolerance Futuristic crops Resilient varieties Salinity tolerance 


  1. Abdullah AS, Aziz MM, Siddique KHM, Flower KC (2015) Film antitranspirants increase yield in drought stressed wheat plants by maintaining high grain number. Agric Water Manag 159:11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abebe A, Pathak H, Singh SD, Bhatia A, Harit RC, Kumar V (2016) Growth, yield and quality of maize with elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and temperature in north–west India. Agric Ecosyst Environ 218:66–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abhilash PC, Jamil S, Singh N (2009) Transgenic plants for enhanced biodegradation and phytoremediation of organic xenobiotics. Biotechnol Adv 27(4):474–488CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Abhilash PC, Dubey RK, Tripathi V, Gupta VK, Singh HB (2016a) Plant growth-promoting microorganisms for environmental sustainability. Trends Biotechnol 34:847–850CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Abhilash PC, Tripathi V, Edrisi SA, Dubey RK, Bakshi M, Dube PK, Ebbs SD (2016b) Sustainability of crop production from polluted lands. Energ Ecol Environ 1:54–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amjad M, Akhtar J, Anwar-ul-Haq M, Yang A, Akhtar SS, Jacobsen SE (2014) Integrating role of ethylene and ABA in tomato plants adaptation to salt stress. Sci Hortic 172:109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andersen MM, Landes X, Xiang W, Anyshchenko A, Falhof J, Østerberg JT, Olsen LI, Edenbrandt AK, Vedel SE, Thorsen BJ, Sandøe P (2015) Feasibility of new breeding techniques for organic farming. Trends Plant Sci 20:426–434CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Awala SK, Yamane K, Izumi Y, Fujioka Y, Watanabe Y, Wada KC, Kawato Y, Mwandemele OD, Iijima M (2016) Field evaluation of mixed-seedlings with rice to alleviate flood stress for semi-arid cereals. Eur J Agron 80:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Battipaglia G, Saurer M, Cherubini P, Calfapietra C, McCarthy H, Norby R, Cotrufo M (2013) Elevated CO2 increases tree-level intrinsic water use efficiency: insights from carbon and oxygen isotope analyses in tree rings across three forest FACE sites. New Phytol 197:544–554CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bird DN, Benabdallah S, Gouda N, Hummel F, Koeberl J, La Jeunesse I, Meyer S, Prettenthaler F, Soddu A, Gallasch SW (2016) Modelling climate change impacts on and adaptation strategies for agriculture in Sardinia and Tunisia using AquaCrop and value-at-risk. Sci Total Environ 543:1019–1027CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Black CK, Davis SC, Hudiburg TW, Bernacchi CJ, Delucia EH (2017) Elevated CO2 and temperature increase soil C losses from a soybean–maize ecosystem. Glob Chang Biol 23:435–445CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Borland AM, Wullschleger SD, Weston DJ, Hartwell J, Tuskan GA, Yang X, Cushman JC (2015) Climate-resilient agroforestry: physiological responses to climate change and engineering of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as a mitigation strategy. Plant Cell Environ 38:1833–1849CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Boudreau MA (2013) Diseases in intercropping systems. Annu Rev Phytopathol 51:499–519CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cabello JV, Giacomelli JI, Piattoni CV, Iglesias AA, Chan RL (2016) The sunflower transcription factor HaHB11 improves yield, biomass and tolerance to flooding in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. J Biotechnol 222:73–83CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cakmak I (2005) The role of potassium in alleviating detrimental effects of abiotic stresses in plants. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 168:521–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chahal PS, Jhala AJ (2016) Impact of glyphosate-resistant volunteer corn (Zea mays L.) density, control timing, and late-season emergence on yield of glyphosateresistant soybean (Glycine max L.). Crop Prot 81:38–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Challinor AJ, Ewert F, Arnold S, Simelton E, Fraser E (2009) Crops and climate change: progress, trends, and challenges in simulating impacts and informing adaptation. J Exp Bot 60:2775–2789CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chauhan BS, Opena J (2013) Weed management and grain yield of rice sown at low seeding rates in mechanized dry-seeded systems. Field Crop Res 141:9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen GY, Yong ZH, Liao Y, Zhang DY, Chen Y, Zhang HB, Chen J, Zhu JG, Xu DQ (2005) Photosynthetic acclimation in rice leaves to free-air CO2 enrichment related to both ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation limitation and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration limitation. Plant Cell Physiol 46:1036–1045CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen H, Wang J, Huang J (2014) Policy support, social capital, and farmers’ adaptation to drought in China. Glob Environ Chang 24:193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cicero LL, Madesis P, Tsaftaris A, Piero ARL (2015) Tobacco plants over-expressing the sweet orange tau glutathione transferases (CsGSTUs) acquire tolerance to the diphenyl ether herbicide fluorodifen and to salt and drought stresses. Phytochemistry 116:69–77CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cockburn J, Coetzee H, Berg JVD, Conlong D (2014) Large-scale sugarcane farmers’ knowledge and perceptions of Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), push pull and integrated pest management. Crop Prot 56:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. de Costa W, Zorb C, Hartung W, Schubert S (2007) Salt resistance is determined by osmotic adjustment and abscisic acid in newly developed maize hybrids in the first phase of salt stress. Physiol Plant 131:311–321PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Craine JM, Ocheltree TW, Nippert JB, Towne EG, Skibbe AM, Kembe SW, Fargione JE (2013) Global diversity of drought tolerance and grassland climate-change resilience. Nat Clim Chang 3:63–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Crespo EF, Camañes G, Agustín PG (2012) Ammonium enhances resistance to salinity stress in citrus plants. J Plant Physiol 169:1183–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Davenport RJ, Munoz-Mayor A, Jha D, Essah PA, Rus A, Tester M (2007) The Na+ transporter AtHKT1; 1 controls retrieval of Na+ from the xylem in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Environ 30:497–507CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Delgado JA, Nearing MA, Rice CW (2013) Chapter Two – Conservation practices for climate change adaptation. Adv Agron 121:47–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dettori M, Cesaraccio C, Motroni A, Spano D, Duce P (2011a) Using CERES-wheat to simulate durum wheat production and phenology in Southern Sardinia, Italy. Field Crop Res 120:179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dettori M, Crossa J, Ammar K, Peña RJ, Varela M (2011b) Three-mode principal component analysis of genotype-by-environment-by-trait data in durum wheat. J Crop Improv 25:619–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dong LX, Yang ZK, Ming LZ, Yue YD, Na MN, Wei MQ (2016) Overexpression of a novel NAC-type tomato transcription factor, SlNAM1, enhances the chilling stress tolerance of transgenic tobacco. J Plant Physiol 204:54–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dubey PK, Singh GS, Abhilash PC (2016a) Agriculture in a changing climate. J Clean Prod 113:1046–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dubey RK, Tripathi V, Dubey PK, Singh HB, Abhilash PC (2016b) Exploring rhizospheric interactions for agricultural sustainability: the need of integrative research on multi-trophic interactions. J Clean Prod 115:362–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dubey RK, Tripathi V, Edrisi SA, Bakshi M, Dubey PK, Singh A, Verma JP, Singh A, Sarma BK, Raskhit A, Singh DP, Singh HB, Abhilash PC (2017) Role of plant growth promoting microorganisms in sustainable agriculture and environmental remediation. In: Singh HB, Sharma B, Kesawani C (eds) Advances in PGPR research. CABI Press, Washington, DC. Scholar
  34. Eltayeb AE, Kawano N, Badawi GH, Kaminaka H, Sanekata T, Shibahara T, Inanaga S, Tanaka K (2007) Overexpression of monodehydroascorbate reductase in transgenic tobacco confers enhance tolerance to ozone, salt and polyethylene glycol stresses. Planta 225:1255–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. European Environment Agency (EEA) (2012) Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe. An indicator-based report. EEA Report No. 12/2012. Copenhagen, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  36. Fahad S, Hussain S, Saud S, Hassan S, Tanveer M, Ihsan MZ, Shah AN, Ullah A, Nasrullah, Khan F, Ullah S, Alharby H, Nasim W, Wu C, Huang J (2016) A combined application of biochar and phosphorus alleviates heat-induced adversities on physiological, agronomical and quality attributes of rice. Plant Physiol Biochem 103:191–198CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Fanaei HR, Galavi M, Kafi M, Bonjar AG (2009) Amelioration of water stress by potassium fertilizer in two oilseed species. Int J Plant Prod 3:41–54Google Scholar
  38. Fang SB, Shen B, Tan K, Gao XN (2010) Effect of elevated CO2 concentration and increased temperature on physiology and production of crops. Chin J Eco-Agric 18:1116–1124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fasciglione G, Casanovas EM, Quillehauquy V, Yommi AK, Goni MG, Roura SI, Barassi CA (2015) Azospirillum inoculation effects on growth, product quality and storage life of lettuce plants grown under salt stress. Sci Hortic 195:154–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. García NF, Olmos E, Bardisi E, De la Garma JG, López-Berenguer C, Rubio-Asensio JS (2014) Intrinsic water use efficiency controls the adaptation to high salinity in a semi-arid adapted plant, henna (Lawsonia inermis L.). J Plant Physiol 171:64–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gautam P, Lal B, Raja R, Tripathi R, Shahid M, Baig MJ, Puree C, Mohanty S, Nayak AK (2015) Effect of simulated flash flooding on rice and its recovery after flooding with nutrient management strategies. Ecol Eng 77:250–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ghanem M, Albacete A, Martínez-Andujar C, Acosta M, Romero-Aranda R, Dodd IC, Lutts S, Pérez-Alfocea F (2008) Hormonal changes during salinity-induced leaf senescente in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), J. Exp Bot 59:3039–3050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ghannoum O, Von Caemmerer S, Ziska LH, Conroy JP (2000) The response of C4 plants to elevated CO2 partial pressure: a reassessment. Plant Cell Environ 23:931–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Godfree R, Lepschi B, Reside A, Bolger T, Robertson B, Marshall D, Carnegie M (2011) Multiscale topoedaphic heterogeneity increases resilience and resistance of a dominant grassland species to extreme drought and climate change. Glob Chang Biol 17:943–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Green JM (2014) Current state of herbicide-resistant crops. Pest Manag Sci 70:1351–1357CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hao X, Li P, Han X, Norton RM, Lam SK, Zong Y, Sun M, Lin E, Gao Z (2016) Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) on N, P and K uptake of soybean in northern China. Agric Forest Meteorol 218:261–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hu DG, Sun MH, Sun CH, Liu X, Zhang QY, Zhao J (2015) Yu-Jin Hao∗Conserved vacuolar H+-ATPase subunit B1 improves salt stress tolerance in apple calli and tomato plants. Sci Hortic 197:107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ibrahim EA (2016) Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds. J. Plant Physiol 192:38–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Iglesias A, Avis K, Benzie M, Fisher P, Harley M, Hodgson N, Horrocks L, Moneo M, Webb J (2007) Adaptation to climate change in the agricultural sector. Report to European Commission Directorate–General for Agriculture and Rural Development, AEA Energy & Environment and Universidad de Politécnica de Madrid. In: AGRI-2006-G4-05, ED05334. text_en.pdf. Accessed 25 Jun 2015Google Scholar
  50. Iglesias A, Garrote L, Quiroga S, Moneo M (2012) From climate change impacts to the development of adaptation strategies: challenges for agriculture in Europe. Clim Change 112:143–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Iijima M, Awala SK, Watanabe Y, Kawato Y, Fujioka Y, Yamanea K, Wadaa KC (2016) Mixed cropping has the potential to enhance flood tolerance of drought-adapted grain crops. J Plant Physiol 192:21–25CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2014) Summary for policymakers. In: Field CB et al (eds) climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: global and sectoral aspects. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  53. Ismail AM, Singh US, Singh S, Dar MH, Mackill DJ (2013) The contribution of submergence-tolerant (Sub1) rice varieties to food security in flood prone rainfed lowland areas in Asia. Field Crop Res 152:83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Johkan M, Oda M, Maruo T, Shinohara Y (2011) Crop production and global warming impacts. Case studies on the economy, human health, and on urban and natural environments. INTECH Open Access Publisher, Rijeka. http://www.intechopen.comGoogle Scholar
  55. Kadiyala MDM, Jones JW, Mylavarapu RS, Li YC, Reddy MD (2015) Identifying irrigation and nitrogen best management practices for aerobic rice–maize cropping system for semi-arid tropics using CERES-rice and maize models. Agric Water Manag 149:23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Khan ZR, Midega CAO, Pittchar JO, Murage AW, Birkett MA, Bruce TJA, Pickett JA (2014) Achieving food security for one million sub-Saharan African poor through push-pull innovation by 2020. Phil Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 369:20120284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kim EY, Seo YS, Park KY, Kim SJ, Kim WT (2014) Overexpression of CaDSR6 increases tolerance to drought and salt stresses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Gene 552:146–154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Komatsu S, Tougou M, Nanjo Y (2015) Proteomic techniques and management of flooding tolerance in Soybean. J Proteome Res 14:3768–3778CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Liu HJ et al (2008) Yield formation of CO2-enriched hybrid rice cultivar Shanyou 63 under fully open-air field conditions. Field Crop Res 108:93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lou YG, Zhang GR, Zhang WQ, Hu Y, Zhang J (2014) Reprint of: biological control of rice insect pests in China. Biol Contr 68:103–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lu Z, Liu D, Liu S (2007) Two rice cytosolic ascorbate peroxidases differentially improve salt tolerance. Plant Cell Rep 26:1909–1917CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Mahajan G, Chauhan BS, Timsina J, Singh PP (2012) Kuldeep-Singh crop performance and water- and nitrogen-use efficiencies in dry-seeded rice in response to irrigation and fertilizer amounts in northwest India. Field Crop Res 134:59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Maharjan GR, Ruidisch M, Shope CL, Choi K, Huwe B, Kim SJ, Tenhunen J, Arnhold S (2016) Assessing the effectiveness of split fertilization and cover crop cultivation in order to conserve soil and water resources and improve crop productivity. Agric Water Manag 163:305–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mendelsohn R, Dinar A (2009) Climate change and agriculture: an economic analysis of global impacts, adaptation and distributional effects. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, p 256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Midega CAO, Toby JA, Bruce Pickett JA, Pittchara JO, Muragea A, Khan ZR (2015) Climate-adapted companion cropping increases agricultural productivity in East Africa. Field Crop Res 180:118–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mutava RN, Prince SJK, Syed NH, Song L, Valliyodan B, Chen W, Nguyen HT (2015) Understanding abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms in soybean: a comparative evaluation of soybean response to drought and flooding stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 86:109–120CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Nguyen VT, Vuong TD, VanToai T, Lee JD, Wu X, Mian MA, Dorrance AE, Shannon JG, Nguyen HT (2012) Mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to Phytophthora sojae and flooding tolerance in soybean. Crop Sci 52:2481–2493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Owen NA, Fahy KF, Griffiths H (2015) Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) offers sustainable bioenergy production and resilience to climate change. GCB Bioenerg 8:737. Scholar
  69. OXFAM - CIAT (2011) Impact of climate change on Jamaican hotel industry supply chains and on farmer’s livelihoods. Case study: Jamaica. International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), CaliGoogle Scholar
  70. Pathak H, Aggarwal PK, Singh SD (2012) Climate change impacts, adaptations and mitigation in agriculture: methodology for assessment and application. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, pp xix–302Google Scholar
  71. Penella C, Nebauer SG, Bautista AS, Galarza SL, Calatayud A (2015) Strategies to avoid salinity and hydric stress of pepper grafted Plants. Agriculture and climate change - adapting crops to increased uncertainty (AGRI 2015). Proc Environ Sci 29:211–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rao CS, Kundu S, Shanker AK, Naik RP, Vanaja M, Venkanna K, Sankar GRM, Rao VUM (2016) Continuous cropping under elevated CO2: differential effects on C4 and C3 crops, soil properties and carbon dynamics in semi-arid alfisols. Agric Ecosyst Environ 218:73–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shabala S, Shabala L, Cuin TA, Pang J, Percey W, Chen Z, Conn S, Eing C, Wegner LH (2010) Xylem ionic relations and salinity tolerance in barley. Plant J 61:839–853CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Shabala S, Hariadi Y, Jacobsen SE (2013) Genotypic difference in salinity tolerance in quinoa is determined by differential control of xylem Na+ loading and stomatal density. J Plant Physiol 170:906–914CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Shen H, Zhong X, Zhao F, Wang Y, Yan B, Li Q, Chen G, Mao B, Wang J, Li Y, Xiao G, He Y, Xiao H, Li J, He Z (2015) Overexpression of receptor-like kinase ERECTA improves thermotolerance in rice and tomato. Nat Biotechnol 33(9):996–1003CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Singh A, Abhilash PC (2018) Agricultural biodiversity for sustainable food production. J Clean Prod 172:1368–1369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Singh A, Dubey PK, Chaurasiya R, Mathur N, Kumar G, Bharati S, Abhilash PC (2018) Indian spinach: an underutilized perennial leafy vegetable for nutritional security in developing world. Energ Ecol Environ 3:195. Scholar
  78. Soussana JF, Graux AI, Tubiello FN (2010) Improving the use of modeling for projections of climate change impacts on crops and pastures. J Exp Bot 61:2217–2228CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Talaat NB, Shawky BT, Ibrahim AS (2015) Alleviation of drought-induced oxidative stress in maize (Zea mays L.) plants by dual application of 24-epibrassinolide and spermine. Environ Exp Bot 113:47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tewari S, Lesky TC, Nielsen AL, Pinero JC, Saona CRR (2014) Chapter 9 - Uses of pheromones in insect pest management, with special attention to Weevil pheromones. In: Integrated pest management: current concepts and ecological perspective. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 141–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Vishwakarma MK, Mishra VK, Gupta PK, Yadav PS, Kumar H, Joshi AK (2014) Introgression of the high grain protein gene Gpc-B1 in an elite wheat variety of Indo-Gangetic plains through marker assisted backcross breeding. Curr Plant Biol 1:60–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Vurukonda SSKP, Vardharajula S, Shrivastava M, SkZ A (2016) Enhancement of drought stress tolerance in crops by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Microbiol Res 184:13–24CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Webber H, Gaiser T, Ewert F (2014) What role can crop models play in supporting climate change adaptation decisions to enhance food security in Sub-Saharan Africa? Agric Syst 127:161–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Westengen OT, Okongo MA, Onek L, Berg T, Upadhyaya H, Birkeland S, Khalsa SDK, Ringa KH, Stenseth NC, Brysting AK (2014) Ethnolinguistic structuring of sorghum genetic diversity in Africa and the role of local seed systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:14100–14105CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Woodcock BA, Bullock JM, McCracken M, Chapman RE, Ball SL, Edwards ME, Nowakowski M, Pywell RF (2016) Spill-over of pest control and pollination services into arable crops. Agric Ecosyst Environ 231:15–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Yadav PS, Mishra VK, Arun B, Chand R, Vishwakarma MK, Vasistha NK, Mishra AN, Kalappanavard IK, Joshi AK (2015) Enhanced resistance in wheat against stem rust achieved by marker assisted backcrossing involving three independent sr genes. Curr Plant Biol 2:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Yang L, Huang J, Yang H, Zhu J, Liu H, Dong G, Liu G, Han Y, Wang Y (2006) The impact of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) and N supply on yield formation of rice crops with large panicle. Field Crop Res 98:141–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Yang L, Liu H, Wang Y, Zhu J, Huang J, Liu G, Dong G, Wang Y (2009) Yield formation of CO2-enriched inter-subspecific hybrid rice cultivar Liangyoupeijiu under fully open-air field condition in a warm sub-tropical climate. Agric Ecosyst Environ 129:193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zhu LD, Shao XH, Zhang YC, Zhang H, Hou MM (2012) Effects of potassium fertilizer application on photosynthesis and seedling growth of sweet potato under drought stress. J Food Agric Environ 10:487–491Google Scholar
  90. Zhu C, Xu X, Wang D, Zhu J, Liu G (2015) An indica rice genotype showed a similar yield enhancement to that of hybrid rice under free air carbon dioxide enrichment. Sci Rep 5:12719. Scholar
  91. Ziska LH, Bunce JA, Shimono H, Gealy DR, Baker JT, Newton PC, Reynolds MP, Jagadish KS, Zhu C, Howden M, Wilson LT (2012) Food security and climate change: on the potential to adapt global crop production by active selection to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 279:4097–4105CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pradeep Kumar Dubey
    • 1
  • Gopal Shankar Singh
    • 1
  • Purushothaman Chirakkuzhyil Abhilash
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Environment & Sustainable DevelopmentBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations