• Antonia ParmeggianiEmail author
  • Evamaria Lanzarini


Infancy and early childhood are key periods in an individual’s neural and behavioural development. There is strong evidence that traumatic events occurring at this age are associated with poor health outcomes, which persist into adulthood. Women’s health must be safeguarded at all ages in order to protect the well-being of subsequent generations. The diversity of clinical pictures and health outcomes resulting from genetic predisposition and environmental exposure has prompted recent investigations into the differences between males and females in the way the brain develops during the early years of life. By considering these differences, gender-specific therapeutic approaches could be designed to help children fully develop their resilience.


Childhood Women’s health Attachment Adverse childhood experiences Infancy Gender Resilience Externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical and Surgical SciencesUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly

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