The evolution that takes place during product development, as the design transitions from an embryonic idea to a complete design for a manufactured product, is not automatic nor is it a mechanical process. It does not occur on its own or by chance. Importantly, excellent products are not created by rote application of specified design methods. Instead, they are created when designers apply their best and most skillful efforts to the challenge at hand.
- Pugh S (1991) Total design: integrated methods for successful product engineering. Pearson Education. Addison-Wesley, BostonGoogle Scholar