Chronic Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

  • Claudia Ravaglia
  • Venerino Poletti


Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is the result of an immunologically induced inflammation of the lung parenchyma in response to inhalation exposure to a large variety of antigens in genetically susceptible individuals. It shares clinical and radiological features with other acute and chronic interstitial lung diseases and is sometimes difficult to diagnose if exposure to an antigenic agent is not detected. Several classifications and diagnostic criteria have been proposed but are not currently recommended by guidelines from any scientific society. The main forms are considered: the subacute and the chronic. The distinction between the chronic disease and other fibrosing interstitial lung diseases is particularly complex. Pathologic evaluation of lung biopsy samples may result to be diriment. Transbronchial cryobiopsy is emerging as a valid approach also in the identification of lesions addressing the diagnosis.


Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis Mosaic oligemia Bronchiolocentric fibrosis Granulomas Transbronchial cryobiopsy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudia Ravaglia
    • 1
  • Venerino Poletti
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Diseases of the Thorax, Pulmonology UnitG.B. Morgagni L. Pierantoni HospitalForlìItaly
  2. 2.Department of Diseases of the ThoraxOspedale Morgagni-PierantoniForlìItaly
  3. 3.Department of Respiratory Diseases and AllergyAarhus University HospitalAarhusDenmark

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