Advertisement

Wetland Restoration in China: Principles, Techniques, and Practices

  • Shuqing AnEmail author
  • Xuanbo Zhang
  • Siyuan Song
  • Hui Zhao
  • Nasreen Jeelani
Chapter
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 238)

Abstract

Wetlands are important natural resources, and their importance has gradually been appreciated worldwide. Between 1970 and 2015, about 35% of the world’s natural wetlands has been lost. Due to reclamation, pollution, and unwise use, China’s wetland resources are facing enormous threats and challenges. In this context, wetland restoration has become an important approach to mitigate their degradation and maintain their ecosystem services. Restoring the damaged wetlands is important for generating a more esthetical environment, regulating the climate, and protecting biodiversity. This chapter summarizes the status quo, conservation, and restoration progress of wetlands in China; proposes an action plan for wetland restoration in line with China’s national conditions; proposes the principles, technologies, and practices for the restoration of riverine wetlands, lake wetlands, and rural wetlands by three typical wetland restoration procedures; and indicates the development direction of different types of wetland restoration.

The chapter also points out the challenges for wetland restoration in China; it puts forward the innovative concept of “small wetlands,” introduces their ecological value, and gives guidance for small wetlands restoration, which supplements wetland conservation to a general extent. This chapter could provide theoretical support and could serve as a reference for wetland restoration all over the world.

Keywords

Wetland restoration River wetlands Lake wetlands Rural wetlands Small wetlands Restoration guideline Restoration approach 

References

  1. An SQ (2003) Ecological engineering of wetlands, vol 36. Chemical Industry Press, Beijing, pp 335–342Google Scholar
  2. Bao DM, Wang XL, Lu XG (2006) Wetland protection basing on basin ecological management in the middle–lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Wetl Sci 4(2):96–100Google Scholar
  3. Bassi N, Kumar MD, Sharma A, Pardha-Saradhi P (2014) Status of wetlands in India: a review of extent, ecosystem benefits, threats and management strategies. J Hydrol Reg Stud 2(C):1–19Google Scholar
  4. Blackwell MSA, Pilgrim ES (2011) Ecosystem services delivered by small-scale wetlands. Hydrol Sci J 56(8):1467–1484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brix H (1997) Do macrophytes play a role in constructed treatment wetlands? Water Res 35(5):11–17Google Scholar
  6. Buijse AD, Coops H, Staras M, Jans LH, Van Geest GJ, Grift RE, Ibelings BW, Oosterberg W, Roozen FCJM (2010) Restoration strategies for river floodplain along large lowland rivers in Europe. Freshw Biol 47(4):889–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen XR (2011) Progress of river restoration research at home and abroad. J Hydroecol 32(5):122–128Google Scholar
  8. Chen YJ, Yuan X, Tuerxun M, Li WH (2008) A review of studies on restoration and protection of lake wetland ecosystem in arid region of China. Collected Papers of Academic Symposium on Environment and Resources across the Taiwan Strait, pp 295–303Google Scholar
  9. Chen Y, Niu Z, Hu S, Zhang H (2016) Dynamic monitoring of dongting lake wetland using time-series MODIS imagery. J Hydraul Eng 47(9):1093–1104Google Scholar
  10. Cheng FY, Basu NB (2017) Biogeochemical hotspots: role of small water bodies in landscape nutrient processing. Water Resour Res 53:5038–5056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chin A, Gregory KJ (2005) Managing urban river channel adjustments. Geomorphology 69(1):28–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Craig LS, Palmer MA, Richardson DC, Filoso S, Bernhardt ES, Bledsoe BP, Doyle MW, Groffman PM, Hassett BA, Kaushal SS (2008) Stream restoration strategies for reducing river nitrogen loads. Front Ecol Environ 6(10):529–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dai X, Tie Fu (2011) Problems of lake-wetland restoration project and its countermeasures. Yangtze RiverGoogle Scholar
  14. Dong ZR (2009) Theoretical framework for eco-hydraulics. J Hydraul Eng 34(1):1–6Google Scholar
  15. Dou M, Ma JX, Hu CH (2007) Analysis of the water environmental protection experience of the Great Lakes. Meteorol Environ Sci 30(2):20–22Google Scholar
  16. Erwin KL (2009) Wetlands and global climate change: the role of wetland restoration in a changing world. Wetl Ecol Manag 17(1):71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Findlay SJ, Taylor MP (2006) Why rehabilitate urban river systems? Area 38(3):312–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fu BQ, Chen W, Hu D, Gao W, Fu RH, Zhang TL (2006) Preliminary study on conservation and sustainable utilization of wetland biological resources in Beijing. J Cap Norm Univ Nat Sci Sect 27(4):62–67Google Scholar
  19. Huang Y, Lou Q, Jueyan XU (2009) Study on crisis of wetland rural area’s eco-landscape pattern and its countermeasures: case of Baita Lake in Zhuji. Ecol Econ 219:169–172Google Scholar
  20. Institute WR (2005) Millenium ecosystem assessment – ecosystems and human well-being: wetlands and water synthesis. Phys Teach 34(9):534–534Google Scholar
  21. Jeelani N, Zhu ZJ, Wang PH, Zhang PH, Song SY, Yuan HZ, An SQ, Leng X (2016) Assessment of trace metal contamination and accumulation in sediment and plants of the Suoxu River, China. Aquat Bot 140:92–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jiang TT, Pan JF, Pu XM, Wang B, Pan JJ (2015) Current status of coastal wetlands in China: degradation, restoration, and future management. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 164:265–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jin XC (2001) Control and management of Eutrophic Lakes. Chemical Industry Press, Beijing, p 224Google Scholar
  24. Kang XG, Huo HM, Dai HZ, Zhang XB, Yang YE, Yang TW, Xiong YY, An SQ (2017) Research on models for rural ecological conservation and restoration: a case study of Changshu City. Wetl Sci Manag 13(3):4–9Google Scholar
  25. Knight RL (1993) Ancillary benefits and potential problems with the use of wetlands for nonpoint source pollution control. In: Olson RK (ed) Created and natural wetlands for controlling nonpoint source pollution. USEPA Envrionmental Research Laboratory, CorvallisGoogle Scholar
  26. Kondolf GM (1996) A cross section of stream channel restoration. J Soil Water Conserv 51(2):119–125Google Scholar
  27. Kondolf GM (2006) River restoration and meanders. Ecol Soc 11(2):42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Laspidou C, Kakoulidis I, Loukas A (2011) Ecosystem simulation modeling of nitrogen dynamics in the restored lake Karla in Greece. Desalin Water Treat 33(1–3):61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lee SY, Maniquiz MC, Choi JY, Jeong SM, Kim LH (2013) Seasonal nutrient uptake of plant biomass in a constructed wetland treating piggery wastewater effluent. Water Sci Technol 67(6):1317–1323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lewis CA, Lester NP, Bradshaw AD, Fitzgibbon JE, Fuller K, Hakanson L, Richards C (1996) Considerations of scale in habitat conservation and restoration. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 53(S1):440–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Linley S, Leshuk T, Gu FX (2013) Magnetically separable water treatment technologies and their role in future advanced water treatment: a patent review. Clean (Weinh) 41(12):1152–1156Google Scholar
  32. Luo P, He B, Takara K, Xiong YE, Nover D, Duan W, Fukushi K (2015) Historical assessment of Chinese and Japanese flood management policies and implications for managing future floods. Environ Sci Pol 48:265–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ma F, Wan Y, Yuan G, Meng L, Dong Z, Hu J (2012) Occurrence and source of nitrosamines and secondary amines in groundwater and its adjacent Jialu River basin, China. Environ Sci Technol 46(6):3236–3243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Millar JB (1971) Shoreline area ratio as a factor in rate of water loss from small sloughs. J Hydrol 14(3–4):259–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China (2016) Bulletin of China environment quality 2015. http://www.zhb.gov.cn/hjzl/zghjzkgb/lnzghjzkgb/201606/P020160602333160471955.pdf Google Scholar
  36. Mitsch WJ, Gosselink JG, Söderqvist T, Mitsch WJ, Turner RK (2000) The value of wetlands: importance of scale and landscape setting. Ecol Econ 35(1):25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Niu ZG, Zhang HY, Wang XW, Yao WB, Zhou DM, Zhao KY, Zhao H, Li NN, Huang HB, Li CC (2012) Mapping wetland changes in China between 1978 and 2008. Chin Sci Bull 57:2813–2823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Palmer MA, Bernhardt ES (2006) Hydroecology and river restoration: ripe for research and synthesis. Water Resour Res 42(3):431–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Peacock BC, Hikuroa D, Morgan T (2012) Watershed-scale prioritization of habitat restoration sites for non-point source pollution management. Ecol Eng 42(9):174–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Qin BQ (2007) Principles and approach for lake ecological restoration. Acta Ecol Sin 27(11):4848–4858Google Scholar
  41. Ramsar (2018) China designates eight new Ramsar Sites. https://www.ramsar.org/news/china-designates-eight-new-ramsar-sites
  42. Ren QJ, Ji MQ, Yu JP (2015) Functions and construction methods of small wetlands. Mod Agric Sci Technol 13:225–230Google Scholar
  43. Ren LJ, Wen T, Pan W, Chen YS, Xu LL, Yu LJ, Yu CY, Zhou Y, An SQ (2016) Nitrogen removal by ecological purification and restoration engineering in a polluted river. Clean (Weinh) 43(12):1565–1573Google Scholar
  44. Richardson SJ, Clayton R, Rance BD, Broadbent H, Mcglone MS, Wilmshurst JM (2015) Small wetlands are critical for safeguarding rare and threatened plant species. Appl Veg Sci 18(2):230–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. SFA (2005) Wildlife and wetland reserves information. http://www.cnwm.org.cn/wildlife/index.asp
  46. SFA (2012) 12th five-year plan of national wetland protection project. http://cfdb.forestry.gov.cn/lysjk/indexJump.do?url=view/moudle/searchData/showDetail&keyid=100238
  47. SFA (2014) Second national wetland resource survey. http://www.forestry.gov.cn/main/65/content-758154.html
  48. SFA (2016) Wetland protection and restoration system. http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2017-05/18/content_5194935.htm
  49. SFA (State Forestry Administration) (2017) National wetland protection: 13th five-year plan. http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2017-04/20/content_5187584.htm Google Scholar
  50. Shao H, Chu L (2013) Water-quality engineering in natural systems: fate and transport processes in the water environment. Acta Hydrochim Hydrobiol 41(8):829–830Google Scholar
  51. Tang KW, Wang Y, Wang R (2014) Research on domestic and overseas standards system of aquatic ecosystems restoration. China StandardizationGoogle Scholar
  52. Tiner RW (2010) NWI plus: geospatial database for watershed-level functional assessment. Natl Wetl Newsl 32:4–7Google Scholar
  53. Wang XQ (2014) Research on diagnosis of the degree of degradation and correspondence relation on river ecosystem of Huaihe River Basin (Henan Section). Zhengzhou UniversityGoogle Scholar
  54. Wang L, Hong G, Wang F, Sun XM, Zhu QL (2010) Characteristic analysis of plants for the removal of nutrients from a constructed wetland using reclaimed water. Clean (Weinh) 38(1):35–43Google Scholar
  55. Wang ZM, Wu JG, Madden M, Mao DH (2012) China’s wetlands: conservation plans and policy impacts. Ambio 41(7):782–786PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Xiao DN, Hu YM, Li XZ (2001) Landscape ecology of wetlands along the coast of Bohai Sea. Science Press, Beijing, p 417Google Scholar
  57. Yang B, Yao C, Yan C, Wang F (2011) Wetland conservation in China: achievements, problems and development strategies. China DevelopmentGoogle Scholar
  58. Yen CH, Chen KF, Sheu YT, Lin CC, Horng JJ (2012) pollution source investigation and water quality management in the Carp Lake Watershed, Taiwan. Clean (Weinh) 40(1):24–33Google Scholar
  59. Yi YJ, Yang ZF, Zhang SH (2011) Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in fishes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin. Environ Pollut 159(10):2575–2585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yıldırım M, Topkaya B (2012) assessing environmental impacts of wastewater treatment alternatives for small-scale communities. Acta Hydrochim Hydrobiol 40(2):171–178Google Scholar
  61. Zedler JB, Kercher S (2005) WETLAND RESOURCES: status, trends, ecosystem services, and restorability. Annu Rev Environ Resour 15(30):39–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhang PL (2017) Models for rural wetland development: a case study of Nicanglou rural wetland. Wetl Sci Manag 13(3):32–35Google Scholar
  63. Zhang JE, Xu Q (1999) Major issues in restoration ecology researches. Chin J Appl Ecol 10(1):109–113Google Scholar
  64. Zhang MX, Liu GQ, Tang XP (2009) Techniques and methods for wetland restoration. Wetl Sci Manag 5(3):12–15Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shuqing An
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Xuanbo Zhang
    • 2
  • Siyuan Song
    • 1
  • Hui Zhao
    • 2
  • Nasreen Jeelani
    • 1
  1. 1.Nanjing UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Nanjing University Ecological Research Institute of ChangshuChangshuPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations