Conclusion: A Journey Through the Juncture of Nationalism, Militarism and Masculinity
Nationalism, militarism and masculinity are co-constitutive and re-adapt through their relationship, protracting the conflict culture in post-conflict societies. This can hinder peace negotiations or political intercessions in terms of bringing peace and reconciliation. The masculinity co-constituting militarism and nationalism in post-conflict settings comprises two components: post-conflict masculinity, which refers to the stance of the community in the conflict situation; and hegemonic masculinity, which refers to the identity of men. Radical far-right agendas play a particular role in post-conflict societies, aiming to preserve traditional versions of nationalism, militarism and masculinity. The re-adaptation between nationalism, militarism and masculinity in European Cyprus is constructing new ideological borders, replacing the closed uncrossable ones, providing resistance to cross and the support for a professional army. The conclusions further point to how energy-related development (e.g. finding gas and petrol) can have an impact on conflict culture in post-conflict societies. The conclusion outlines how the work can be applied to policy on conflict resolution, civil–military relations, and comparative and internal defence policy.
- Adamou, M. (2019). Ο Tούρκος Πορθητής «τρυπά» την Κυπριακή ΑΟΖ. [video] Ant1. Available at https://www.ant1iwo.com/news/cyprus/article/336943/missing-friendly-url/. Accessed 20 May 2019.
- Anderson, B. (2006) . Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism (2nd ed.). London: Verso.Google Scholar
- Aretxaga, B. (1997). Shattering silence: Women, nationalism, and political subjectivity in Northern Ireland. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
- Connell, R. W. (2005). Masculinity, violence and war. In M. Kimmel & M. Messner (Eds.), Men’s lives (3rd ed., pp. 125–130). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
- Ekathimerini. (2019). Turkey launches ‘Blue Homeland’ naval exercise [online]. Available at http://www.ekathimerini.com/238119/article/ekathimerini/news/turkey-launches-blue-homeland-naval-exercise. Accessed 20 May 2019.
- Gellner, E. (1983). Nations and nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
- Hellas Journal. (2018, September 24). Η Κύπρος είναι κοντά για τον Ταγίπ Ερντογάν: Ήταν όμως μακριά για τον Κων. Καραμανλή… Hellas Journal. Retrieved from https://hellasjournal.com. Accessed 24 September 2018.
- Huntington, S. P. (1957). Soldier and the state: Theory and politics of civil-military relations. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Hurriyet. (2019). Blue Homeland ‘shows Turkey has become a maritime power’ [online]. Available at http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/blue-homeland-shows-turkey-has-become-a-maritime-power-141624. Accessed 20 May 2019.
- Laclau, E., & Mouffe, C. (2001). Hegemony and socialist strategy: Towards a radical democratic politics (2nd ed.). London: Verso.Google Scholar
- Moskos, C. C. (1976). Peace soldiers: The sociology of a United Nations military force. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Proto Thema. (2018, September 17). Νέες απειλές Ερντογάν: Θα αυξήσουμε τον Τουρκικό στρατό στην Κύπρο. Proto Thema. Retrieved from https://www.protothema.gr. Accessed 24 September 2018.
- SigmaLive. (2019a). Συναγερμός για τον “Πορθητή” [video]. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eUSz5awpWos.
- SigmaLive. (2019b). Νέα τετελεσμένα των Τούρκων στην Κυπριακή ΑΟΖ. [video] Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pmia8cQdmD8. Accessed 20 May 2019.
- To Bhma. (2018, September 21). Ερντογάν: Επίθεση κατά Ελλάδας και Κύπρου (Erdogan: Attack against Greece and Cyprus). To Bhma. Retrieved from http://www.tovima.gr. Accessed 24 September 2018.