Advertisement

Nationalism After the Opening of the Border

  • Stratis Andreas Efthymiou
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter shows the impact of both the opening of the borders and the accession of Cyprus to the EU on the Greek Cypriot (GC) idea of national struggle. The ideas of fighting for liberation from ‘occupation’ and the ‘fighting spirit’ are investigated in the changing struggle. The gender significance of the ‘victimized mother’ in the contemporary conflict is exemplified. After the opening of the borders, the ‘mothers of the missing persons’ continue to symbolize post-1974 Cyprus as a feminized victim of ‘occupation’. The failed opportunity to bring the two communities together through the open border and the broad GC resistance to crossing the border are conditioned by the ‘victimized’ discourse of ‘occupation’.

References

  1. Anderson, B. (2006) [1983]. Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism (2nd ed.). London: Verso.Google Scholar
  2. Anthias, F. (1989). Women and nationalism in Cyprus. In N. Yuval-Davis & F. Anthias (Eds.), Woman-nation-state (pp. 150–167). Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boedeltje, H. F., & Houtum, O. T. (2007). The shadows of no man’s land: Crossing the border in the divided capital of Nicosia, Cyprus. Geographica Helvetica, 62(1), 16–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bordignon, M. (2008). The Cypriot issue in the current European geopolitical order: Towards a final resolution? Transition Studies Review, 15(2), 417–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bourdieu, P. (1991). Language and symbolic power. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bryant, R. (2002). The purity of spirit and the power of blood: A comparative perspective on nation, gender and kinship in Cyprus. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 8(3), 509–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bryant, R. (2004). Imagining the modern: The cultures of nationalism in Cyprus. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  8. Bryant, R. (2005). A dangerous trend in Cyprus. Middle East Report, 35(235) [online]. Available at http://www.merip.org/mer/mer235/dangerous-trend-cyprus. Accessed 28 April 2014.
  9. Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Butler, J. (1993). Bodies that matter: The discursive limits of ‘sex’. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Calhoun, C. (1997). Nationalism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  12. Christiansen, A. (2005). Crossing the Green Line: Anti-settler sentiment in Cyprus. Macalester International Journal, 15, 154–174.Google Scholar
  13. Christou, M. (2006). A double imagination: Memory and education in Cyprus. Journal of Modern Greek Studies, 24(2), 285–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen, A. P. (1985). The symbolic construction of community. Chichester, UK: Ellis Horwood.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Constantinou, C. M. (2008). On the Cypriot states of exception. International Political Sociology, 2(2), 145–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cyprus Parliament. (2008). Η ύπαρξη και λειτουργία καζίνων στα κατεχόμενα, η συμμετοχή Ελληνοκυπρίων στις δραστηριότητές τους και η ανάγκη θεσμικής προστασίας της κυπριακής κοινωνίας μέσω της λειτουργίας και εισαγωγής θεσμών για το σκοπό αυτό [online]. Nicosia: Parliamentary Committee on Institutions, Merit and the Commissioner for Administration. Available at http://www2.parliament.cy/parliamentgr/008_05d/008_05_3013.htm. Accessed 16 February 2019.
  17. Cyprus Police. (2012). ΑΣΤΥΝΟΜΙΑ ΚΥΠΡΟΥ Ετήσια Έκθεση 2011 [online]. Nicosia. Available at http://www.police.gov.cy/police/police.nsf/All/8CEA7777C07DF57FC2257A4F0036AADB?OpenDocument. Accessed 16 February 2019.
  18. Demetriou, O. (2005). EU and the Cyprus conflict: Perceptions of the border and Europe in the Cyprus conflict. EU Border Conflicts Working Papers Series (Paper No. 18). The University of Birmingham.Google Scholar
  19. Demetriou, O. (2007). To cross or not to cross? Subjectivization and the absent state in Cyprus. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 13(4), 987–1006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dikomitis, L. (2004). A moving field: Greek Cypriot refugees returning ‘home’. Durham Anthropology Journal, 12(1), 7–20.Google Scholar
  21. ———. (2005). Three readings of a border: Greek Cypriots crossing the Green Line in Cyprus. Anthropology Today, 21(5), 7–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Durrell, L. (2012). Bitter lemons of Cyprus. New York: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
  23. Enloe, C. (2000). Maneuvers: The international politics of militarizing women’s lives. Berkeley and London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  24. Enloe, C. (2004). The curious feminist: Searching for women in the new age of empire. Berkeley and London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  25. Foucault, M. (1984). What is Enlightenment? In P. Rabinow (Ed.), The Foucault reader (pp. 32–50). New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  26. Georgakopoulos, T. (1999). Cyprus a full member of the European Union: An overview. Economia, 3, 77–94.Google Scholar
  27. Giddens, A. (1990). The consequences of modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  29. Gokcekus, O., Henson, J., Nottebaum, D., & Wanis-St John, A. (2012). Impediments to trade across the Green Line in Cyprus. Journal of Peace Research, 49(6), 863–872.Google Scholar
  30. Hadjipavlou, M. (2006). No permission to cross: Cypriot women’s dialogue across the divide. Gender Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, 13(4), 329–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hadjipavlou, M. (2007). Multiple stories: The ‘crossings’ as part of citizens’ reconciliation efforts in Cyprus? Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 20(1), 53–73.Google Scholar
  32. Hadjipavlou, M., & Kanol, B. (2008). The impact of peace building work on the Cyprus. Boston, MA: Collaborative Learning Projects (CDA).Google Scholar
  33. Hall, S. (1977). Culture, the media, and the “ideological effect”. In J. Curran, M. Gurevitch, & J. Woollacott (Eds.), Mass communication and society. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  34. Hall, S. (1996). Introduction: Who needs “identity”? In S. Hall & P. du Gay (Eds.), Question of cultural identity. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  35. Haraway, D. (1991). Simians, cyborgs, and women. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. Hatay, M., Mullen, F., & Kalimeri, J. (2008). Intra-island trade in Cyprus: Obstacles, opposition and psychological barriers. PRIO Paper 2. Oslo: International Peace Research Institute.Google Scholar
  37. Hazou, E. (2005). Money pouring into the North. Cyprus Mail [online]. Available at http://cyprus-mail.com/author/hazou/. Accessed 18 January 2014.
  38. Jørgensen, M., & Phillips, L. (2002). Laclau and mouffe’s discourse theory. In Discourse analysis as theory and method. London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  39. Joseph, J. (1997). Cyprus: Ethnic conflict and international politics: From independence to the threshold of the European Union. London and New York: Macmillan Press.Google Scholar
  40. Kammas, M. (1992). Smallness, economic development and Cyprus. The Cyprus Review, 4, 65–76.Google Scholar
  41. Kiziltan, M. U., Bain, W. J., & Canizares, M. A. (1990). Postmodern conditions: Rethinking public education. Educational Theory, 40(3), 351–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Laclau, E., & Mouffe, C. (2001). Hegemony and socialist strategy: Towards a radical democratic politics (2nd ed.). London: Verso.Google Scholar
  43. Lordos, A., Kaymak, E., & Tocci, N. (2009). A people’s peace in Cyprus: Testing public opinion on the options for a comprehensive settlement. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies.Google Scholar
  44. Martell, L. (2010). Sociology of globalization. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  45. Massad, J. (1995). Conceiving the masculine: Gender and Palestinian nationalism. The Middle East Journal, 49(3), 467–483.Google Scholar
  46. Mavratsas, C. V. (1996). The ideological contest between Greek-Cypriot nationalism and Cypriotism, 1974–1995: Politics, social memory and identity. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 20(4), 717–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Palley, C. (2006). An international relations debacle: The UN secretary-general’s mission of Good Offices in Cyprus: 1999–2004. Oxford: Hart Publishing.Google Scholar
  48. Sahin, S. (2011). Open borders, closed minds: The discursive construction of national identity in North Cyprus. Media, Culture & Society, 33(4), 583–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sigma Live. (2016). Nikos Dimou, the man behind the “not forget” [online]. YouTube. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=noJ37zK8QdU. Accessed 18 February 2019.
  50. Sitas, A., Latif, D., & Loizou, N. (2007). Prospects of reconciliation, coexistence and forgiveness in Cyprus. A Research Report (PRIO Report 4/2007). Oslo: International Peace Research Institute (PRIO).Google Scholar
  51. Spilling, M., & Spilling, J. (2010). Cultures of the world: Cyprus. New York: Benchmark Books.Google Scholar
  52. Terdiman, R. (1989). Discourse/counter-discourse: The theory and practice of symbolic resistance in nineteenth-century France. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Vassiliou, G. (2004). EU entry: Catalyst for a Cyprus solution [online]. Global Dialogue, 5(3–4). http://www.worlddialogue.org/content.php?id=262. Accessed 6 March 2014.
  54. Webster, C., & Timothy, D. J. (2006). Travelling to the “other side”: The ‘occupied’ zone and ‘Greek Cypriot’ views of crossing the Green Line. Tourism Geographies, 8(2), 162–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Webster, C., Musyck, B., & Orphanides, S. (2009). Working on the other side. Cooperative tour organizers and uncooperative hoteliers: Evidence from ‘Greek Cypriot’ tourism professionals. European Planning Studies, 17(10), 1485–1508.Google Scholar
  56. Yakinthou, C. (2008). The quiet deflation of Den Xehno? Changes in the ‘Greek Cypriot’ communal narrative on the missing persons in Cyprus’. The Cyprus Review, 20, 15–33.Google Scholar
  57. Yakinthou, C. (2009). The EU’s role in the Cyprus conflict: System failure or structural metamorphosis? Ethnopolitics, 8(3–4), 307–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yorucu, V., Mehmet, O., Alpar, R., & Ulucay, P. (2010). Cross-border trade liberalization: The case of Lokmaci/Ledra gate in divided Nicosia, Cyprus. European Planning Studies, 18(10), 1749–1764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Yuval-Davis, N., & Anthias, F. (1998). Woman-nation-state. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stratis Andreas Efthymiou
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Applied SciencesBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations