Advertisement

Ultrasound Diagnosis in Benign Thyroid Lesions

  • Alexander N. Sencha
  • Yury N. Patrunov
  • Ella I. Peniaeva
  • Liubov A. Timofeyeva
  • Munir G. Tukhbatullin
  • Ekaterina A. Sencha
Chapter

Abstract

Thyroid nodules are detected in 4–15% of the population. The nodules are observed in more than 50% of patients with thyroid pathology; the incidence of nodules can reach 98.9% in endemic regions. Thyroid lesions include both colloid nodules and tumors. Obligatory US features of colloid nodule are well-defined margins and intact capsule. Long-lasting colloid nodules may contain coarse calcifications and shell-shaped or egg-shell peripheral impregnations. They show a peripheral pattern of blood flow in CDI. Qualitative and quantitative data of ultrasound elastography commonly reveal medium stiffness. Colloid nodules are often associated with iodine deficiency and account for 60–75% of all thyroid lesions. Thyroid cysts are thin-walled cavitary lesions filled with fluid (commonly, colloid). True cysts with flat epithelium lining make up <0.5% of all thyroid lesions. The predominant benign thyroid tumor is follicular adenoma. Adenomas occupy 16–25% of all thyroid lesions. They are typically represented by a solitary nodule. Thyroid adenomas tend to grow fast, so they are normally large (over 2–3 cm in size) by the time they are diagnosed. The majority of adenomas show a peripheral hypoechoic ring (halo) in grayscale sonography and a typical vascular pattern in CDI and PDI with perinodular and intranodular hypervascularization.

References

  1. 1.
    Vetshev PS, Chilingaridi KE, Gabaidze DI, Saliba MB. Adenomas of the thyroid gland. Khirurgiya. 2005;7:4–8 (Article in Russian).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Burch HB. Fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodules. Determinants of insufficiency rate and malignancy yield at thyroidectomy. Acta Cytol. 1996;40:1176–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pacella CM, Papini E, Bizzarri G, et al. Assessment of the effect of percutaneous ethanol injection in autonomously functioning thyroid nodules by colour-coded duplex sonography. Eur Radiol. 1995;5:395–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tsyb AF, Parshin BC, Nestayko GV, et al. Ultrasound diagnosis of thyroid diseases. Moscow: Medicine; 1997 (Book in Russian).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zubarev AV, Bashilov VP, et al. The value of ultrasonic angiography and three-dimensional reconstruction of vessels in the diagnosis of nodular formations of the thyroid gland. Medicinskaya vizualizaciya. 2000;3:57–62 (Article in Russian).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Markova EN. Three-dimensional virtual tomography and ultrasonic angiography in the diagnosis of nodular formations of the thyroid gland [PhD thesis]. Moscow; 2004 (Book in Russian).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhang B, Jiang YX, Liu JB, et al. Utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for evaluation of thyroid nodules. Thyroid. 2010;20(1):51–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Markova NV. The value of ultrasound angiography in the diagnosis of the main diseases of the thyroid gland [PhD Thesis]. Moscow; 2001 (Book in Russian).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barsukov AN, Konoplev OA, Chebotarev NV, Tolpygo VA. Clinical classification of cystic neoplasms of the thyroid gland. Modern aspects of surgical endocrinology: proceedings of the IX (XI) Russian symposium on surgical endocrinology. Chelyabinsk. 2000:50–52 (Article in Russian).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ahuja A, Chick W, King W, Metreweli C. Clinical significance of the comet tail artifact in thyroid ultrasound. J Clin Ultrasound. 1996;24(3):129–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bellantone R, Lombardi CP, Rafaelli M, et al. Management of cystic or predominantly cystic thyroid nodules: the role of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Thyroid. 2004;14(1):143–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ahuja A. The thyroid and parathyroid. In: Ahuja A, Evans R, editors. Practical head and neck ultrasound. London: Greenwich Medical Media Ltd; 2000.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yamashita S, Ito M. In: Sigamatsu I, Nagataki S, Foundation for the Promotion of Healthcare, editors. Diagnosis of diseases of the thyroid gland. From the experience of activities to assist in the organization of medical care after the accident in Chernobyl. Sasakawa - Nagasaki; 1996.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bronshtein ME. Thyroid cancer. Probl Endocrinol. 1997;6:33–7 (Article in Russian).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sencha AN. Ultrasonic visualization of malignant tumors of the thyroid gland. Ultrazvukovaya i funkcionalnaya diagnostika. 2008;2:20–29 (Article in Russian).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Struchkova TY (2003) Parameters of blood flow in the lower and upper thyroid arteries. Normative values. Abstracts of the 4th Congress of the Russian Association of Specialists in Ultrasound Diagnostics in Medicine. Moscow, pp. 221–222 (Article in Russian).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kotlyarov PM, Kharchenko VP, Alexandrov YK, et al. Ultrasound diagnosis of the diseases of the thyroid gland. Moscow: Vidar-M; 2009 (Book in Russian).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Schleder S, Janke M, Agha A, et al. Preoperative differentiation of thyroid adenomas and thyroid carcinomas using high resolution contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2015;61(1):13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander N. Sencha
    • 1
  • Yury N. Patrunov
    • 2
  • Ella I. Peniaeva
    • 2
  • Liubov A. Timofeyeva
    • 3
  • Munir G. Tukhbatullin
    • 4
  • Ekaterina A. Sencha
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Visual and Functional DiagnosticsNational Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian FederationMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Department of Ultrasound DiagnosticsCenter for Radiological Diagnostics of Non-State Healthcare Institution Yaroslavl Railway Clinic of JSC “Russian Railways”YaroslavlRussia
  3. 3.Department for Internal Diseases PropaedeuticCourse of Diagnostic Radiology of Medical Faculty of Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education “I. N. Ulianov Chuvash State University”CheboksaryRussia
  4. 4.Department of Ultrasound DiagnosticsKazan State Medical Academy – Branch Campus of the Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Further Professional Education, “Russian Medical Academy of Continuing Professional Education” of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian FederationKazanRussia
  5. 5.Ultrasound Diagnostics DepartmentMedical Diagnostic CenterMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations