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Thyroid Disorders and Female Reproductive System Diseases: The Thyroid Gland and Pregnancy

  • Antonina A. Smetnik
  • Alexander N. Sencha
  • Stanislav V. Pavlovich
Chapter

Abstract

Thyroid diseases are more typical for fertile women than for any other population. Thyroid function influences all stages of development and function of the female reproductive system, inclusive of menstrual cycle regulation, fertility, gestation, and postpartum period. All types of thyroid pathology in regard to female reproduction system may be divided into the following two groups: dysfunction of the gland (hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis) and abnormalities of thyroid structure (increase in volume and thyroid lesions). Hypothyroidism is easily detected and, unlike autoimmune status, is well managed with drug therapy. Thyrotoxicosis, regardless of the cause, can lead to menstrual cycle disorders. However, thyrotoxicosis is not a cause of infertility. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism in women of childbearing age is Graves’ disease. Thyrotoxicosis due to toxic adenoma proceeds more favorably during pregnancy, since antibodies to the TSH receptors are not produced in the mother’s body. The enlargement of the thyroid gland in the case of normal thyroid function does not affect the female reproductive system. If a pregnant woman is diagnosed of a thyroid nodule, two aspects need to be discussed concerning the thyroid hormonal disorders and benign/malignant nature of the lesion. Malignant thyroid nodules diagnosed with fine needle aspiration cytology in pregnant women demand a different management.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonina A. Smetnik
    • 1
  • Alexander N. Sencha
    • 2
  • Stanislav V. Pavlovich
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Gynecological EndocrinologyNational Medical Research Centre for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian FederationMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Department of Visual and Functional DiagnosticsNational Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian FederationMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Academic Council of National Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian FederationMoscowRussia

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